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64  &  66  FIFTH   AVENUE,   NEW   YORK 





lit:     '  ■ 

Pubbshed  No-vember  1905 



Until  the  beginning  of  the  nineteenth  century 
time  had  dealt  kindly  with  our  great  Capital,  at 
least  from  the  point  of  view  of  a  lover  of  the 
past.  In  the  confines  of  the  City  there  were 
still  many  houses  of  timbered  or  half-timbered 
construction,  which  had  evidently  existed  before 
the  Great  Fire,  and  the  plain  but  well-propor- 
tioned buildings  which  came  into  being  shortly 
after  that  catastrophe  were  so  common  that  they 
hardly  attracted  notice.  Merchants  dwelt  where 
their  business  was  carried  on,  and  worshipped  hard 
by,  in  the  City  churches  where  their  fathers  had 
worshipped  before  them ;  and,  if  they  went  on  a 
journey,  they  started  from  one  of  those  quaint 
galleried  inns  of  which  a  solitary  survivor  yet 
remains  in  the  Borough  High  Street.  The  west 
end  of  London  terminated  at  Hyde  Park  Corner ; 




Tothill  Fields  were  fields  indeed  ;  houses  had  begun 
to  spread  in  the  direction  of  Paddington,  but  farther 
east  Tavistock  Square  and  the  Foundling  Hospital 
marked  the  northern  limitations.  On  a  plan  dated 
1802  Mile  End  appears  to  be  in  the  country,  and 
most  of  the  present  South  London  was  market 
garden  or  marsh. 

Even  during  the  writer's  childhood  the  City 
was  still  old  fashioned ;  Kensington — the  "  old 
Court  Suburb" — had  somewhat  the  appearance 
of  a  country  town,  while  that  part  of  Chelsea 
which  bordered  on  the  Thames  was  a  straggling 
river-side  hamlet.  But  in  this  time  of  rapid  change, 
a  generation  makes  all  the  difference.  Growth 
and  destruction  have  gone  hand  in  hand,  and  soon 
perhaps  it  will  be  as  difficult  to  find  an  old  house 
within  the  four -mile  radius  as  to  light  upon  an 
unrestored  church — or  to  flush  a  snipe  in  Eaton 

The  writer,  for  many  years,  has  employed  his 
spare  time  in  examining  those  older  portions  of 
London  which  have  now  been  to  a  great  extent 
"  improved  "  away ;  he  has  visited  them  again  and 
again,  making  notes  on  the  spot,  with  brush  and 


pencil,  of  picturesque  buildings,  threatened  with 
destruction.  He  has  also  hunted  up  old  documents 
relating  to  them,  and  has  carefully  checked  any 
statements  on  the  subject  by  previous  writers.  x^ 
The  result  of  what  has  been  to  him  a  labour  of 
love  may  perhaps  have  interest,  even  value,  for 
the  public.  This  must  be  his  excuse  for  adding  to 
the  already  long  list  of  publications  on  old  London. 
The  buildings  alluded  to  in  this  work  are  widely 
scattered  :  they  must  be  looked  upon  as  a  selection 
only  of  what  we  are  losing,  for  in  no  single  volume 
is  there  space,  and  no  man  alone  can  have  had 
time  and  energy,  to  deal  with  a  tithe  of  the 
interesting  structures,  from  Mile  End  to  Hammer- 
smith, which  either  still  drag  on  a  precarious 
existence  or  have  not  long  passed  away.  The 
letterpress  is  divided  into  chapters,  beginning  with 
the  east  and  south  east,  progress  being  made  by 
easy  stages  to  the  west,  so  that  what  has  been 
written  takes  more  or  less  the  form  of  an  itinerary, 
but  the  requirements  of  the  subject  make  it 
impossible  to  follow  absolutely  any  fixed  plan. 
Southwark,  which  forms  the  subject  of  the  opening 
chapter,  was  studied  by  Mr.  Norman  long  ago  in 


conjunction  with  the  late  Dr.  Rendle.  The  result 
first  appeared  in  a  volume  on  the  inns  of  that  early 
settled  district,  which  was  issued  in  a  limited  edition, 
and  has  long  been  out  of  print.  On  the  old  houses 
in  the  City  and  west  end  he  wrote  and  illustrated 
two  articles  for  the  English  Illustrated  Magazine, 
when  it  was  so  admirably  conducted  under  the 
ownership  of  Messrs.  Macmillan,  and  a  third  during 
the  reign  of  Messrs.  Ingram.  On  other  City  subjects, 
which  here  occupy  his  attention,  he  has  written 
in  the  publications  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries, 
and  of  the  Surrey  Archaeological  Society,  also  for 
the  Burlington  Magazine,  and  the  Home  Counties 
Magazine,  known  in  its  earlier  days  as  Middlesex 
and  Hertfordshire  Notes  and  Queries. 

To  Sir  Caspar  Purdon  Clarke,  C.I.E.,  and  others 
who  have  been,  or  are,  connected  with  the  Board  of 
Education,  he  tenders  his  hearty  thanks  for  per- 
mission to  reproduce  the  water-colour  drawings  by 
him  which  for  the  present  at  least  have  found  a 
home  in  the  Bethnal  Green  Museum,  and  for  their 
kindly  help  in  other  respects.  He  is  also  grateful 
to  the  authorities  of  the  Art  Gallery,  Guildhall,  to 
the  Hon.  W,  F.  D.  Smith,  M.P.,  to  Miss  Jones, 


V  to  Mr.  J.  J.  Hamilton,  to  Mr.  E.  Norman,  and  to 
Mr.  J.  Ritchie,  for  allowing  water-colours  in  their 
possession  to  be  reproduced. 

In  his  views  the  writer  has  made  truthful  record 
the  first  consideration,  combining  this,  to  the  best 
of  his  ability,  with  pictorial  effect.  If  it  be  objected 
that  houses  of  entertainment  have  had  too  much 
attraction  for  him,  he  would  point  out  that  those 
which  he  knew  best  were  of  rare  beauty  and 
interest ;  besides,  it  was  their  outward  appearance, 
not  the  interiors,  with  which  he  was  often  est 
familiar.  Of  the  seventy -five  illustrations  here 
given,  about  sixty  represent  buildings  which  have 
entirely  disappeared,  a  notable  number  while  this  v^ 

book  was  in  progress,  and  only  some  half-dozen  of 
the  subjects  remain  altogether  unchanged. 




SOUTHWARK         ......  1 


The  City  and  East  End       .  .  .  .47 


More  City  Houses     .  .  .  .  .83 


Some  Ancient  City  Relics    .  .  .  .111 


The  Ward  of  Farringdon  Without  .  .149 


About  the  Inns  of  Court  and  Chancery    .  .180 




Westward,  Ho  !         .  .  . 


The  Western  Fringe  ....       263 





1.  Holywell  Street,  Strand,  looking  West,  1900     .    Frontispiece 

2.  Tabard  Inn,  Southwark,  1810    . 

3.  White  Hart  Inn,  Southwark,  1884      . 

4.  Gallery  of  White  Hart  Inn,  Southwark,  1884 

5.  Old  Houses,  Inner  Yard  of  White  Hart  Inn,  South 

wark,  1884 

6.  Back  of  White  Hart  Inn,  Southwark,  1884 

7.  George  Inn,  Southwark,  1885    . 

8.  Queen's  Head  Inn,  Southwark,  1883 

9.  Back  of  Queen's  Head  Inn,  Southwark,  1884 

10.  Last  of  King's  Head  Inn,  Southwark,  1884 

11.  Layton's  Buildings,  Southwark,  1904 

12.  Sir  Paul  Pindar's  House,  Bishopsgate  Street,  1877 

13.  Tower  of  Church  of  St.  Giles,  Cripplegate,  and  Old 

Houses  in  Fore  Street,  1884 

14.  No.  10  Great  St.  Helen's,  and  Entrance  of  St.  Helen's 

Church,  1893 

15.  Entrance  to  Bishopsgate  from  Great  St.  Helen's,  1890 

16.  Almshouses  of  Skinners'  Company,  Mile  End,  1892 

17.  Vine  Tavern,  Mile  End,  looking  East,  1887        . 








18.  Vine  Tavern,  Mile  End,  looking  West,  1903       .  78 

19.  Staircase  of  No.  10  Austin  Friars,  1895      .  88 

20.  No.  23  Great  Winchester  Street,  1890        .                   .  92 

21.  Chimney-piece  and  part  of  Room  at  No.  4  Coleman 

Street,  1892 94 

22.  Doorways  of  Nos.  1  and  2  Laurence  Poultney  Hill, 

1895 96 

23.  Old  Buildings  from  St.  Paul's  Pier,  1894   .                   .  100 

24.  Dean's  Court,  St.  Paul's  Churchyard,  1894          .          .  102 

25.  Swan  with  Two  Necks  Inn,  Carter  Lane,  1894  .         .  104 

26.  Back  of  Green  Dragon  Tavern,  St.  Andrew's  Hill,  1 890  106 

27.  Reminiscence  of  Oxford  Arms  Inn,  Warwick  Lane, 

1875 .108 

28.  Remains  of  Roman  Wall,  Newgate,  1903   .         .         .  114 

29.  Mediaeval  Arches,  Ireland  Yard,  Blackfriars,  1900  ll6 

30.  Church  of  St.  Michael,  Wood  Street,  1896          .         .  120 

31.  Church  of  St.  Michael,  Bassishaw,  1897      .       .  .         .  126 

32.  Interior  of  Church  of  All  Hallows,  Upper  Thames 

Street,  1894 128 

33.  Doorway  of  St.  George's  Church,  Botolph  Lane,  1904  130 

34.  Crypt  of  Sir  John  de  Pulteney's  Mansion,  Laurence 

Poultney  Hill,  1894 132 

35.  Entrances  of  Christ's  Hospital,  and  of  Christ  Church, 

1895 144 

36.  Cloth  Fair,  West  Smithfield,  looking  West,  1904  150 

37.  Yard  of  Old  Bell  Inn,  Holborn,  from  North,  1897  154 

38.  Yard  of  Old  Bell  Inn,  Holborn,  from  South,  1897  158 

39.  Coffee-room  of  Old  Bell  Inn,  Holborn,  1897       .         .  l60 

40.  Old  Bell  Inn  and  Black  Bull,  from  Holborn,  1897  l60 



41.  Leather  Lane,  looking  South  towards  Holbom,  1897 

42.  Passage  North  side  of  Holbom,  1 897 

43.  White  Hart  Yard,  Brooke  Street,  Holbom,  1903 

44.  Gateway  and  Entrance  of  White  Horse  Inn,  Fetter 

Lane,  1898 

45.  No.  10  Nevill's  Court,  Fetter  Lane,  1891   . 

46.  Nos.  13,  14,  and  15  Nevill's  Court,  Fetter  Lane,  1901 

47.  Dining-room  of  Cock  Tavern,  Fleet  Street,  destroyed 

1886     .         .         .         .         . 

48.  Temple  Bar,  1876 

49.  Room  in  Inner  Temple  Gate-house,  1899  • 

50.  Dick's  Coffee-house,  Fleet  Street,  1899      • 

51.  No.  15  Gray's  Inn  Square  from  Field  Court,  1904 

52.  Staple  Inn,  Holbom,  1884 

53.  Hall  of  Barnard's  Inn,  Holbom,  1886 

54.  Part  of  Barnard's  Inn,  Holbom,  1886 

55.  Garden  House,  Clement's  Inn,  1883  . 

56.  Portsmouth  House,  South- West  Comer  of  Lincoln's 

Inn  Fields,  1904 

57.  "Old  Curiosity  Shop,"  Portsmouth  Street,  1884 

58.  Holy^vell  Street,  Strand,  looking  East,  19OO 

59.  Wych  Street,  Strand,  looking  North- West,  19OI 

60.  Nell  Gwjm's  Lodging,  Drury  Lane,  February,  1881 

61.  No.  10  Downing  Street,  1888    .... 

62.  Garden  of  No.  10  Downing  Street,  1888    . 

63.  Emanuel  Hospital,  Westminster,  1890 

64.  Six  Bells  Tavern  and  Bowling  Green,  Chelsea,  19OO 

65.  Maunder's  Fish  Shop,  Cheyne  Walk,  1887 










66.  Turner's  House^  Cheyne  Walk,  Chelsea,  1887    ■ 

67.  Sandford  Manor  House  from  back  garden,  1898 

68.  Staircase  of  Sandford  Manor  House,  1898  . 

69.  Old  Houses  on  Site  of  Victoria  and  Albert  Museum 


70.  Scarsdale  House,  Wright's  Lane,  Kensington,  1892 

71.  Garden  from  Scarsdale  House,  Kensington,  1892 

72.  York  House  and  Garden,  Church  Street,  Kensington 


73.  Red  Cow  Public-House  and  Fairlawn,  Hammersmith 

Road,  1897 

74.  Bradmore  House,  Hammersmith,  April  1904 

75.  Thatched  Cottage  near  Paddington  Green,  1895 





The  Illustrations  in  this  volume  have  been  engraved  in  England  by 
Hentschel  Golmirtype,  Ltd. 




Southwark  is  a  ward  of  London  without  the  walls,  on  the  south 
side  thereof,  as  is  Portsoken  on  the  east,  and  Farringdon  extra  on  the 
west— J.  Stow  (1598). 

That  part  of  Southwark  which  extends  from  the 
river  to  the  Church  of  St.  George  the  Martyr, 
although  no  doubt  it  was  once  mostly  covered  by 
water  at  high  tide,  like  the  rest  of  the  low-lying 
land  immediately  to  the  south  of  the  Thames,  was 
early  reclaimed  and  occupied  by  the  Romans,  ta 
whom  the  importance  of  holding  this  approach 
to  London  must  at  once  have  become  evident. 
Many  discoveries  have  been  made  of  Roman 
remains  on  each  side  of  the  High  Street.  Already 
when  they  were  deposited,   perhaps  long  before, 

the  river  must  have  been  embanked  to  some  extent 



on  this  side,  and  there  was  doubtless  a  causeway 
leading  over  the  partially  reclaimed  land  in  the 
direction  of  the  south-east  coast,  from  a  ferry 
which  we  may  assume  to  have  been  replaced  by  a 
bridge  during  the  Roman  occupation,  for,  although 
no  Roman  foundations  have  come  to  light,  the 
discovery  of  thousands  of  coins,  dating  from  the 
time  of  Augustus  to  that  of  Honorius,  and  of 
many  objects  of  Roman  art,  in  the  bed  of  the 
river  along  the  site  of  the  old  London  Bridge, 
almost  puts  the  matter  beyond  a  doubt.  Some 
writers,  on  the  strength  of  a  statement  by  Ptolemy 
the  geographer  that- London  was  in  the  region  of 
the  Cantii,  have  assumed  that  Southwark  was  the 
town  originally  settled,  but,  apart  from,  other  con- 
siderations, this,  from  the  nature  of  the  ground, 
is  highly  improbable. 

In  mediaeval  times  the  road  through  Southwark 
had  an  importance  peculiarly  its  own,  not  only  as 
the  chief  thoroughfare  for  purposes  of  business 
and  pleasure  between  London,  the  south-eastern 
counties,  and  the  Continent,  but  because  during 
many  generations  it  was  worn  by  pilgrims  travel- 
ling to  and  from  the  shrine  of  the  most  popular 
of  English  saints — the  **holy,  blissful  martyr," 
Thomas  a  Becket.     Again,  for  whatever  purpose  a 


journey  might  be  undertaken,  it  must  undoubtedly 
have  been  convenient  to  make  a  start  from  outside 
the  City  walls.  Thus,  when  the  great  religious 
establishments  and  lay  owners  of  important  houses 
no  longer  bore  the  chief  burden  of  hospitality,  and 
public  inns  had  become  common,  what  is  now 
usually  called  the  Borough  High  Street  was  occu- 
pied by  them  in  number  out  of  all  proportion  to 
ordinary  shops  and  dwellings.  John  Stow,  the  early 
historian  of  London,  in  his  Survey  (1598),  implies 
as  much.  Beginning  at  the  Marshalsea  Prison, 
which  was  only  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  from  the 
Thames,  on  the  east  side  of  the  Borough  High 
Street,  he  says :  "  From  thence  towards  London 
Bridge  on  the  same  side  be  many  fair  inns  for  the 
receipt  of  travellers,  by  these  signs,  the  Spurre, 
Christopher,  Bull,  Queen's  Head,  Tabard,  George, 
Hart,  King's  Head,  etc."  He  wrote,  it  is  true, 
in  Protestant  times,  but  these  houses,  standing 
close  together,  had  then  been  long  established, 
and  most  of  them  continued  to  exist  as  coaching 
and  carriers'  inns  until  by  the  advent  of  railways  the 
whole  conditions  of  life  were  gradually  changed. 

Of  the  inns  appearing  in  the  above  list,  five  at 
least  have  something  of  historic  interest.  We 
will  begin  with  the  Tabard,  which  was  one  of  the 


earliest  public  hostelries  in  this  country,  and 
also  one  of  the  most  famous,  owing  to  the  fact 
that  Chaucer  has  selected  it  as  the  starting-point 
of  his  pilgrims  in  the  Canterbury  Tales,  In  these 
words  he  introduces  the  subject : — 

Byfel  that  in  that  sesoun  on  a  day. 

In  Southwerk  at  the  Tabard  as  I  lay. 

Ready  to  wenden  on  my  pilgrimage 

To  Caunterbury  with  ful  devout  corage, 

At  night  was  come  into  that  hostelrie 

Wei  nyne  and  twenty  in  a  compainye 

Of  sondry  folk,  by  aventure  i-falle 

In  felaweschipe  and  pilgryms  were  thei  alle, 

That  toward  Caunterbury  wolden  ryde ; 

The  chambres  and  the  stables  weren  wyde. 

And  wel  we  weren  esed  atte  b^ste. 

Chaucer  even  gives  us  the  name  of  the  jovial 
landlord,  Henry  Bailly,  a  real  personage,  who 
represented  Southwark  in  the  Parliament  held  at 
Westminster,  a.d.  1376.  The  Tabard  is  again 
mentioned  by  Chaucer  as  follows  : — 

In  Southwerk,  at  this  gentil  hostelrye. 

That  highte  the  Tabard,  faste  by  the  Belle — 

the  latter  being  a  house  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 

road,  the  site  now  covered  by  Maidstone  Buildings. 

Coming  to  the  actual  facts  connected  with  the 

Tabard,    it   may   be   mentioned   that   as   early  as 


the  year  1304  the  Abbot  and  Convent  of  Hyde, 
near  Winchester,  purchased  here  from  William  de 
Lategareshall  two  houses  held  of  the  Archbishop 
of  Canterbury.  On  this  site  the  abbot  built  for 
himself  a  town  dwelling,  and  at  the  same  time, 
it  is  believed,  a  hostelry  for  the  convenience  of 
travellers.  In  1307  he  obtained  licence  from  the 
Bishop  of  Winchester  to  build  a  chapel  at  or  by 
the  inn.  In  a  later  deed  occur  the  following 
words :  "  The  Abbott's  lodgeinge  was  wyninge  to 
the  backside  of  the  inn  called  the  Tabarde,  and  had 
a  garden  attached."  Stow  describes  it  as  "  a  fair 
house  for  him  and  his  train  when  he  came  to  that 
city  to  Parliament."  It  should  be  borne  in  mind 
that  at  this  period,  and  for  centuries  afterwards,  the 
roads  of  London  and  its  suburbs  being  sometimes 
almost  impassable,  the  Thames  supplied  the  most 
convenient  means  of  communication  between  places 
by  its  banks.  Hence  it  came  about  that  the  great 
ecclesiastics  almost  always  had  their  town  dwellings 
not  far  from  the  river,  and  that  South wark  was 
peculiarly  favoured  by  them,  for  besides  the  Palace 
of  the  Bishops  of  Winchester  and  Rochester 
House,  there  were  the  hostelries  of  the  Abbots 
of  Hyde,  Battle,  Waverley,  and  St.  Augustine, 
and  of  the  Prior  of  Lewes,  all  near  together,  and 


within  easy  access  of  the  "silent  highway."  Lay 
people  of  the  highest  rank  also  made  their  homes 
in  Southwark  from  time  to  time,  before  fashion 
moved  west. 

An  early  notice  of  the  Tabard  Inn  occurs  in 
one  of  the  Rolls  of  Parliament,  dated  1381,  where, 
in  a  list  of  people  who  had  been  connected  with 
Jack  Cade's  rebellion,  one  finds  the  name  of  "  John 
Brewersman  "  staying  at  the  "  Tabbard."  "  Jockey 
of  Norfolk,"  who  died  at  Bosworth,  fighting  in  the 
vanguard  for  Richard  III.,  was  a  frequenter  of 
Southwark  when  still  Sir  John  Howard,  and  knew 
our  inn  well.  He  called  there,  April  18,  1469, 
and  doubtless  on  other  occasions,  as  we  learn  from 
a  volume  on  the  Manners  and  Household  Expenses 
of  England,  published  by  the  Roxburghe  Club. 

A  lease  of  the  Tabard  before  the  dissolution  has 
lately  been  found  and  printed  with  notes  by  the 
writer.  Its  chief  interest  lies  in  the  enumeration  of 
the  rooms  and  their  fixtures,  given  in  the  schedule, 
which  may  not  unlikely  represent  the  house  much 
as  it  was  in  Chaucer's  time.  The  rooms  have  names, 
such  as  the  "  Rose  parlar,"  the  "  Clyff  parlar,"  the 
"  Crowne  chamber,"  the  "  Keye  chamber,"  and  the 
"  Corne  chamber,"  reminding  one  of  similar  names 
used  by  Elizabethan  dramatists.     Thus  in  Shake- 


speare's  1  King  Henry  IV,  Act  ii.  Scene  4, 
mention  is  made  of  the  "Half  Moon"  and  the 
"  Pomegranate  "  at  the  Boar's  Head  Tavern,  East- 
cheap.  In  the  London  Chaunticleres,  1659,  the 
tapster  of  an  inn  thus  describes  his  morning's 
work :  "  I  have  cut  two  dozen  of  toste,  broacht 
a  new  barrell  of  ale,  washt  all  the  cups  and 
flaggons,  made  a  fire  i'  th'  George,  drained  all  the 
beer  out  of  th'  Half  Moon  the  company  left  o' 
th'  floore  last  night,  wip'd  down  all  the  tables,  and 
have  swept  every  room." 

At  the  Dissolution  the  Tabard,  with  other 
possessions  of  Abbot  Salcote  or  Capon,  was  sur- 
rendered and  granted  by  the  King  to  Thomas  and 
John  Master.  The  sign  of  the  Tabard  (a  sleeve- 
less coat,  like  that  worn  by  heralds)  was  used  until 
about  the  end  of  the  sixteenth  century,  when  it  was 
little  by  little  changed  to  Talbot,  perhaps  through 
fancy  or  carelessness.  According  to  Aubrey,  "  the 
ignorant  landlord  or  tenant,  instead  of  the  ancient 
sign  of  the  Tabard,"  put  up  "  the  Talbot,  a  species 
of  dog."  Be  this  as  it  may,  in  certain  Chancery 
proceedings  of  June  27,  1599,  both  names  are 
used.  About  this  time  there  were  large  additions 
to  the  building.  Speght  says  in  his  second  edition 
of  Chaucer    (1602);    "Whereas  through   time   it 


has  been  much  decaied,  it  is  now  by  Master  J. 
Preston,  with  the  Abbot's  house  thereto  adjoined, 
newly  repaired,  and  with  convenient  rooms  much 
increased  for  the  receipt  of  many  guests."  In 
1637  John  Taylor,  sometimes  called  "the  water- 
poet,"  in  his  enumeration  of  Southwark  inns,  tells 
us  that  "  carriers  from  Crambrooke  and  Benenden 
in  Kent,  and  from  Lewis,  Petworth,  Uckfield,  and 
Cuckfield,  in  Sussex,  doe  lodge  at  the  Tabbard  or 
Talbot " ;  thus  showing  that  the  old  name  still 
lingered.  In  1676,  ten  years  after  the  great 
London  fire,  occurred  a  great  Southwark  fire, 
when  something  like  five  hundred  houses  perished  ; 
it  began  between  this  inn  and  the  George,  and  we 
are  expressly  told  that  "  the  Talbot,  with  its  back- 
houses and  stables,  etc.,  was  burnt  to  the  ground." 
It  was,  however,  rebuilt  more  or  less  on  the 
old  plan,  and  continued  to  be  a  picturesque  and 
interesting  example  of  seventeenth-century  archi- 
tecture until  1875  ;  in  that  and  the  following  year 
the  whole,  with  its  extensive  yards  and  stabling, 
was  swept  away.  Hop  merchants'  offices  and  a 
modern  "  Old  Tabard  "  occupy  the  site.  Our  illus- 
tration was  copied  by  the  writer  many  years  ago 
from  a  water-colour  drawing  by  George  Shepherd 
(1810),    which    belonged    at    the    time    to    a   hop 



merchant,  the  late  Mr.  Evans,  who  occupied  rooms 
at  the  George  Inn  Yard,  where  he  resided. 

The  inn  which  we  will  now  attempt  to  describe 
was  situated  a  short  distance  to  the  north  of  the 
Tabard,  also  on  the  east  side  of  the  Borough  High 
Street,  and  from  the  purely  historical  point  of 
view  it  even  exceeded  in  interest  that  famous 
hostelry.  All  the  South wark  inns,  like  those 
on  the  opposite  side  of  the  Thames,  which  were 
plentiful  in  the  City  and  along  the  chief  thorough- 
fares leading  to  it,  had  been  built  more  or  less  on 
a  similar  plan.  An  old-fashioned  house  usually 
faced  the  street,  with  an  archway  beneath,  the  gate 
of  which  was  closed  at  night.  Passing  through 
this  archway  one  entered  a  yard,  round  which  ran 
the  galleries  containing  bedrooms,  where  the  guests 
were  lodged.  In  this  outer  yard,  as  we  know 
from  historical  evidence,  theatrical  pieces  were 
occasionally  played,  but  no  Southwark  inn  is  con- 
nected by  name  with  such  performance,  except 
during  the  annual  fair,  in  comparatively  modern 
times.  Beyond  the  first  enclosure  was  a  larger 
yard,  with  offices,  ample  stabling,  and  usually 
various  tenements. 

The  White  Hart  was  perhaps  the  largest 
Southwark  inn,  and  appears  to  have  dated  from 



the  latter  part  of  the  fourteenth  century,  the  sign 
being  a  badge  of  Richard  II.,  derived  from  his 
mother,  Joan  of  Kent.  In  the  summer  of  1450 
it  was  Jack  Cade's  headquarters  while  he  was 
striving  to  gain  possession  of  London.  Hall,  in 
his  Chronicle,  thus  speaks  of  him :  "  The  capitayn 
being  advertized  of  the  kynge's  absence  came  first 
into  Southwarke,  and  there  lodged  at  the  White 
Hart,  prohibiting  to  all  men  murder,  rape,  or 
robbery ;  by  which  colour  he  allured  to  him  the 
hartes  of  the  common  people."  However,  it  must 
have  been  by  his  order,  if  not  in  his  presence, 
that  "  at  the  Whyt  harte  in  Southwarke,  one 
Hawaydyne  of  sent  Martyns  was  beheaded,"  as 
we  are  told  in  the  Chronicle  of  the  Grey  Friars  of 
London,  Sir  John  Fastolf,  who,  although  he  must 
have  furnished  a  name  to  Shakespeare's  FalstaiF, 
had  nothing  else  in  common  with  him,  owned  an 
important  dwelling-house  and  much  property  in 
Southwark.  At  the  same  inn,  during  this  out- 
break. Sir  John's  servant,  Payn,  was  grievously 
maltreated,  being  saved  from  instant  assassination 
by  Robert  Poynings,  a  man  of  note,  who  had 
thrown  in  his  lot  with  the  rebels,  and  was  Jack 
Cade's  carver  and  sword-bearer.  Payn's  property, 
however,  was  pillaged,  his  wife  and  children  were 


threatened,  and  she  left  with  "  no  more  gode  but 
her  kyrtyll  and  her  smook."  Besides,  he  was 
thrust  into  the  forefront  of  a  fight  then  raging 
on  London  Bridge,  where  he  was  "  woundyd  and 
hurt  nere  hand  to  death."  Cade's  success  was  of 
short  duration,  his  followers  wavered ;  he  said,  or 
might  have  said,  in  the  words  attributed  to  him  by 
Shakespeare  {2  Henry  F^L  Act  iv.  Scene  8),  "  Hath 
my  sword  therefore  broken  through  London  gates, 
that  you  should  leave  me  at  the  White  Hart  in 
Southwark  ? "  The  outbreak  collapsed,  and  our 
inn  is  not  heard  of  for  some  generations. 

In  1529  a  message  was  sent  to  Thomas  Crom- 
well, the  notorious  minister  of  Henry  VIII.,  by 
some  one  asking  for  an  interview  at  the  White 
Hart.  Twenty  years  afterwards  Sheffield  iron  was 
stored  here,  and  sold  at  £8  :  12s.  a  ton.  In  1637 
it  is  noted  as  a  famous  house  of  call  for  carriers 
to  and  from  various  towns  in  Kent  and  Surrey. 
About  this  time  churchwardens  used  to  visit  the 
various  inns  of  the  borough  and  report  those 
where  drinking  went  on  during  divine  service ; 
the  White  Hart,  the  George,  the  King  s  Head, 
the  Queen's  Head,  and  others  were  in  their  black 
list.  John  Taylor,  the  "water-poet,"  who  must 
have  known  the  White  Hart  well,  as  he  lived  in 


Southwark  for  some  years,  strings  together  the 
following  rhymes  about  it — the  result,  perhaps,  of 
personal  experience : — 

Although  these  Harts  doe  never  run  away, 
They'll  tire  a  man  to  hunt  them  every  day ; 
The  Game  and  Chase  is  good  for  Recreation, 
But  dangerous  to  mak't  an  occupation. 

In  1669  the  back  of  the  inn  was  burnt  down, 
and  in  repairing  the  damage  the  landlord,  Geary, 
"to  his  undoing"  spent  £700.  On  May  26,  1676, 
occurred  the  terrible  fire  already  alluded  to ;  the 
White  Hart  was  quite  destroyed  ;  but  it  was  rebuilt 
shortly  afterwards  on  the  old  foundations,  at  a 
cost  of  £2400,  Geary  again  providing  the  money 
with  the  aid  of  his  friends.  The  owner,  John 
Collett,  gives  him  a  sixty-one  years'  lease,  with  an 
annual  rent  of  £55,  In  1720  Strype  describes  it 
as  very  large  and  of  a  considerable  trade,  being 
esteemed  one  of  the  best  inns  in  Southwark,  and 
it  so  continued  until  the  early  years  of  the  present 
century.  Charles  Dickens,  in  the  tenth  chapter 
of  Pickwick,  has  given  us  the  following  graphic 
description  of  the  house  when  something  of  its  old 
prosperity  still  clung  to  it : — 

"In  the  Borough  especially,  there  still  remain 
some   half-dozen   old   inns  which   have   preserved 


their  external  features  unchanged,  and  which  have 
escaped  alike  the  rage  for  public  improvement  and 
the  encroachments  of  private  speculation.  Great, 
rambling,  queer  old  places  they  are,  with  galleries, 
and  passages,  and  staircases,  wide  enough  and  anti- 
quated enough  to  furnish  material  for  a  hundred 
ghost  stories.  It  was  in  the  yard  of  one  of  these 
inns — of  no  less  celebrated  a  one  than  the  White 
Hart — that  a  man  was  busily  employed  in  brush- 
ing the  dirt  off  a  pair  of  boots,  early  on  the 
morning  succeeding  the  events  narrated  in  the  last 
chapter.  The  yard  presented  none  of  that  bustle 
and  activity  which  are  the  usual  characteristics  of  a 
large  coach  inn.  Three  or  four  lumbering  wagons, 
each  with  a  pile  of  goods  beneath  its  ample  canopy, 
about  the  height  of  a  second-floor  window  of  an 
ordinary  house,  were  stowed  away  beneath  a  lofty 
roof,  which  extended  over  one  end  of  the  yard ; 
and  another,  which  was  probably  to  commence  its 
journey  that  morning,  was  drawn  out  into  the  open 
space.  A  double  tier  of  bedroom  galleries,  with 
old  clumsy  balustrades,  ran  round  two  sides  of  the 
straggling  area,  and  a  double  row  of  bells  to  corre- 
spond, sheltered  from  the  weather  by  a  little  sloping 
roof,  hung  over  the  door  looking  to  the  bar  and 
coffee-room.     Two  or  three  gigs  and  chaise-carts 


were  wheeled  up  under  different  little  sheds  and 
penthouses,  and  the  occasional  heavy  tread  of  a 
cart-horse,  or  rattling  of  a  chain  at  the  end  of  the 
yard,  announced  to  anybody  who  cared  about  the 
matter,  that  the  stable  lay  in  that  direction.  When 
we  add  that  a  few  boys  in  smock  frocks  were  lying 
asleep  on  heavy  packages,  woolpacks,  and  other 
articles  that  were  scattered  about  on  heaps  of  straw, 
we  have  described  as  fully  as  need  be  the  general 
appearance  of  the  yard  of  the  White  Hart  Inn, 
High  Street,  Borough,  on  the  particular  morning 
in  question." 

It  is  needless  to  add  that  the  man  cleaning  boots 
was  Sam  Weller,  and  it  was  the  fact  of  his  inter- 
view here  with  Mr.  Pickwick  which,  led  to  his 
entering  the  service  of  that  gentleman. 

In  1865-66  the  south  side  of  the  building  was 
replaced  by  a  modern  tavern,  which  appears  to  the 
right  of  our  illustration  of  the  outer  yard.  Some 
years  previously  the  yard  had  been  disfigured  by 
a  penthouse  or  lean-to,  also  shown  in  this  drawing, 
it  was  used  for  the  business  of  a  bacon -drier. 
The  old  galleries  on  the  north  and  east  sides  were 
let  out  in  tenements,  and  the  presence  of  their 
inmates  gave  life  and  movement  to  the  scene.  In 
the  inner  yard  stood  some  quaint  old  houses,  also 


crowded  with  lodgers.  From  hence,  looking  back, 
one  often  saw  the  smoke  of  the  bacon -curer's 
furnaces  picturesquely  curling  out  of  the  windows 
of  the  main  building.  Here,  too,  every  afternoon, 
might  be  seen  a  solitary  omnibus  which  plied  to 
Clapham,  the  last  descendant  of  the  old  coaches. 
The  accompanying  illustrations  of  this  inn  were 
painted  in  1884.  In  the  early  autumn  of  that 
year  these  various  lodgers  had  notice  to  quit ;  but 
the  remains  of  the  old  White  Hart  Inn  were  not 
pulled  down  until  July  1889.  Since  then  hop 
factor's  offices  have  been  built  on  the  site,  the 
yard  being  very  much  curtailed.  The  modern 
tavern  on  the  south  side  still  remains,  but  was 
closed  when  the  writer  last  saw  it  in  July  1904. 

Between  the  Tabard  and  the  White  Hart  was 
the  George,  another  of  the  "fair  inns"  noted  by 
Stow  in  1598.  The  exact  date  of  its  erection  has 
not  been  found  out,  but  it  is  mentioned  as  the 
St.  George  in  1554 — "  St.  George  that  swinged  the 
Dragon,  and  sits  on  horseback  at  mine  hostess' 
door."  By  1558,  however,  the  "  Saint "  is  omitted, 
for  Humfrey  Colet,  who  had  been  Member  of 
Parliament  for  Southwark,  mentions  in  his  will 
that  he  owns  the  George,  "now  in  the, tenure  of 
Nicholas  Martin,  Hosteler."     In  1634  a  return  was 


made  that  the  George  Inn,  or  tenements  within  its 
precinct,  had  been  built  of  brick  and  timber  in 
1622.  The  landlord  was  reported  in  1634,  and 
doubtless  on  various  other  occasions,  because  he 
allowed  drinking  to  go  on  at  the  time  of  divine 
service.  Soon  after  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth 
century,  in  a  book  called  Musarum  Delicice,  or  the 
Muses  Recreation,  compiled  by  Sir  John  Mennes 
(admiral  and  chief  comptroller  of  the  navy)  and  Dr. 
James  Smith,  appeared  some  lines  "  upon  a  surfeit 
caught  by  drinking  bad  sack  at  the  George  Tavern 
in  Southwark,"  of  which  the  following  is  a  sample  : — 

The  Devill  would  abhorre  such  posset-drinke, 
Bacchus,  I'm  sure,  detests  it,  'tis  too  bad 
For  Hereticks  ;  a  Friar  would  be  mad 
To  blesse  such  vile  unconsecrable  StufFe, 
And  Brownists  would  conclude  it  good  enough 
For  such  a  sacrifice. 

Perhaps  the  landlord  mended  his  ways  ;  in  any 
case,  the  rent  was  shortly  afterwards  £150  a  year,, 
a  large  sum  for  those  days.  Two  seventeenth- 
century  trade  tokens  of  the  house  exist.  One  of 
them  reads  thus  : — 
Obverse, — anthony  •  blake  •  tapster- ye  george  • 


Reverse. — (No  legend.)     Three  tobacco  pipes  and 

four  pots. 



In  1670  the  George  was  partly  burnt,  and  it  was 
totally  destroyed  in  the  Southwark  fire  of  1676. 

A  story  has  been  told  of  the  sixth  Lord  Digby, 
who  succeeded  to  the  peerage  in  1752,  which  is 
perhaps  worth  repeating  here.  It  is  said  that  at 
Christmas  and  Easter  he  appeared  very  grave,  and 
though  usually  well  dressed  was  then  in  the  habit 
of  putting  on  a  shabby  blue  coat.  This  excited 
the  curiosity  of  Mr.  Fox,  his  uncle,  who  had  him 
watched,  when  it  was  discovered  that  twice  a  year, 
or  oftener,  he  was  in  the  habit  of  going  to  the 
Marshalsea  Prison  and  freeing  prisoners  there.  The 
next  time  the  almsgiving  coat  appeared  a  friend 
boldly  asked  him  why  he  wore  it.  By  way  of  reply 
Lord  Digby  took  the  gentleman  to  the  George  Inn, 
where  seated  at  dinner  were  thirty  people,  whom 
his  Lordship  had  just  released  from  the  neighbour- 
ing Marshalsea  by  payment  of  their  debts  in  full. 

In  1825  the  George  is  reported  in  guide-book 
language  as  "a  good  commercial  inn — whence 
several  coaches  and  many  waggons  depart  laden 
with  the  merchandise  of  the  metropolis,  in  return 
for  which  they  bring  back  from  various  parts  of 
Kent,  etc.,  that  staple  article  of  the  country,  the 
hop,  to  which  we  are  indebted  for  the  good  quality 
of  the  London  porter." 



After  being  for  a  time  in  the  hands  of  Guy's 
Hospital  it  was  sold  about  thirty  years  ago  to  the 
Great  Northern  Railway  Company.  Only  a  frag- 
ment of  it,  but  a  picturesque  one,  remains,  that 
part  which  appears  to  the  right  of  our  illustration. 
The  rest  of  the  building  was  pulled  down  in  1889 
or  shortly  afterwards.  The  interior  of  the  coffee- 
room  on  the  ground  floor  still  retains  its  old- 
fashioned  look.  On  the  opposite  side  of  the  yard 
was  a  dining-room,  where,  until  the  time  of  its 
destruction,  a  few  friends  used  to  meet  under  the 
title  of  the  Four-o'clock  Club,  though  latterly  they 
dined  at  half -past  six  or  seven.  Mr.  J.  Ashby- 
Sterry,  who  has  written  so  charmingly  on  old 
London,  and  on  most  things  connected  with 
Dickens,  is  convinced  that  the  George  and  not 
the  White  Hart  was  really  the  place  where  Mr. 
Pickwick  first  met  the  incomparable  Sam.  In  the 
Bystander  (1901)  he  gives  his  reasons,  and  doubtless 
the  description  might  apply  to  either  fabric.  The 
writer  would  add  that  he  once  asked  the  late 
Charles  Dickens  junior  his  opinion  on  this  point ; 
his  reply  was  that  he  had  never  heard  anything 
from  his  father  to  support  the  suggestion. 

Next  to  the  Tabard,  on  the  south  side,  was  the 
Queen's  Head,  another  of  the  inns  mentioned  by 


Stow.  This  was  on  the  site  of  an  interesting  house 
called  the  Crowned  or  Cross  Keys,  that  belonged 
to  the  Poynings  family,  of  which  Jack  Cade's 
adherent  Robert  was  a  member.  In  1452  a  pay- 
ment of  6s.  8d.  is  recorded  for  the  burial  of  a 
retainer  of  Poynings  at  St.  Margaret's  Church, 
which,  until  after  the  Dissolution,  stood  in  the 
street  almost  immediately  opposite.  Robert  Poyn- 
ings had  been  pardoned,  and  afterwards  married 
Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Sir  John  Paston,  but  was 
killed  within  a  little  more  than  two  years  of  his 
marriage  in  the  second  battle  of  St.  Albans.  On 
December  15,  1468,  his  widow  writes  from  South- 
wark,  probably  from  this  house,  to  her  nephew, 
about  the  various  properties  in  which  through  her 
late  husband  she  is  interested,  among  them  the 
manors  of  Chelsfield  and  North  Cray. 

In  1518  and  afterwards  the  Poynings  let  the 
Crowned  Keys  for  40s.  the  half-year.  In  1529 
it  is  a  sort  of  armoury  or  store-place  for  the  King's 
harness.  There  are  various  records  of  German 
armourers  working  for  the  King  in  South wark 
about  this  time.  In  1558  Richard  Westray,  ale 
brewer,  bequeaths  to  his  wife,  Joane,  his  "  messuage 
called  the  Cross  Kayes,  with  the  brewhouse,  garden, 
and  stable,  as  it  is  now  newly  builded  by  his  son 


Thomas,"  which  apparently  he  had  bought  of 
Thomas  Lovell.  The  change  of  title  from  Cross 
Keys  to  Queen's  Head  probably  took  place  about 
1635-37,  when,  by  the  way,  the  house  was  fre- 
quented by  carriers  from  Portsmouth,  Rye,  God- 
stone,  Lamberhurst,  and  other  places.  Its  owner 
for  that  short  time  was  John  Harvard  or  Harvye, 
son  of  a  Southwark  butcher  carrying  on  business 
in  the  High  Street.  He  had  graduated  at 
Emmanuel  College,  Cambridge,  and  in  the  latter 
year  sailed  for  America,  where  he  died  in  September 
1638,  leaving  by  will  half  his  estate,  together  with 
his  library  of  320  volumes,  to  a  proposed  college, 
which  came  into  being  shortly  afterwards,  and 
is  now  known  as  Harvard  College,  Cambridge, 
Massachusetts,  of  which  he  is  looked  upon  as 
the  principal  founder.  He  had  inherited  the 
Queen's  Head  Inn  from  his  mother,  who  was 
twice  married  after  the  death  of  his  father, 
Robert  Harvard.  Her  third  husband  was  Richard 
Yearwood  or  Yarwood,  Member  of  Parliament 
for  Southwark. 

The  Queen's  Head  appears  to  have  escaped  the 
great  Southwark  fire  of  1676,  perhaps  owing  to 
the  fact  that  by  way  of  precaution  a  tenement 
was  blown  up  with  gunpowder  at  the  gateway. 


In  1691  it  is  thus  mentioned  in  that  scarce  tract 
called  "The  Last  Search  after  Claret  in  South- 
wark,  or  a  Visitation  of  the  Vintners  in  the 

To  the  Queen's-head  we  hastened,  and  found  the  House  ring. 
By  Broom-men  a  singing  old  Simon  the  King ; 
Besides  at  the  bar  we  perceived  a  poor  Trooper 
Was  cursing  his  master  and  calHng  him  Cooper. 

A  writer  in  1855  says :  "  The  Queen's  Head 
has  not  changed  much,  the  premises  are  very 
spacious — the  north  part,  where  the  galleries  still 
remain,  is  now  used  by  a  hop  merchant."  These 
galleries  were  latterly  in  part  let  out  as  tenements 
— the  beginning  of  the  end.  For  many  years,  from 
1848  onwards,  the  landlord  of  the  inn  was  Robert 
Willsher,  a  cousin  of  the  famous  Kentish  bowler 
of  that  name.  In  1868  a  team  of  Australian 
aboriginal  cricketers  came  over  to  England,  and 
made  their  headquarters  here ;  one  of  them  nick- 
named *'  King  Cole"  died  of  consumption  in  Guy's 
Hospital.  These  aborigines  must  not  be  confused 
with  the  splendid  teams  that  visit  us  nowadays. 
They  were  black  fellows  from  the  province  of 
Victoria,  trained  by  C.  Laurence,  an  Englishman. 
They  played  very  fairly,  and  also  gave  exhibitions 
of  boomerang  throwing,  etc.     One  of  them,  as  we 


seem  to  remember,  formerly  held  the  record  for 
throwing  the  cricket  ball. 

In  1886  the  Queen's  Head  was  closed  for  a  time, 
when  an  ugly  slate  roof  was  substituted  for  the 
tiled  one.  It  was  finally  shut  up  in  May  1895, 
and  on  the  27th  of  that  month  the  writer  visited 
it,  when  he  found  that  the  whole  of  the  plaster  on 
the  back  and  front  had  been  removed,  and  a  net- 
work of  solid  oak  timbering  was  exposed  to  view, 
which  appeared  to  be  quite  sound.  He  made  his 
way  to  the  first  floor,  where  there  seems  to  have 
been  originally  a  long  room,  the  walls  of  which 
were  plastered  with  unburnt  clay  mixed  with  straw 
and  spread  on  oak  laths.  It  dated  possibly  from 
the  time  of  Richard  Westray,  and  contained  a 
carved  oak  mantelpiece  of  the  early  seventeenth 
century.  The  galleried  portion  of  the  inn,  also  of 
considerable  age,  although  much  dilapidated  still 
survived  in  June  1900.  The  inner,  yard  where 
formerly  stood  a  rather  picturesque  wooden  house, 
was  then  being  built  over.  The  portion  nearest 
to  Guy's  Hospital  is  now  included  within  its 
boundary.  The  rest  of  the  property  is  described  as 
the  "  Great  Central  Railway  Queen's  Head  Depot." 
Our  views  represent  the  inn  as  it  was  in  1883  and 
1884.     The  former  illustration  shows  the  cupola 


of  Guy's  Hospital  at  no  great  distance.  Its 
founder,  Thomas  Guy,  was  a  native  of  Southwark  ; 
his  father,  who  was  a  lighterman  and  coalmonger, 
about  1644  resided  at  Pritchard's  Alley,  Fair  Street, 
Horsleydown,  where  the  future  philanthropist  was 

The  last  of  the  Southwark  inns  illustrated  by 
us  is  the  King's  Head,  which  is  one  of  those 
mentioned  by  Stow,  and  stood  nearer  to  London 
Bridge  than  any  of  the  others.  The  back  of  it 
is  seen  to  our  right  in  the  view  from  the  inner 
yard  of  the  White  Hart,  the  yards  of  these  two 
houses  being  adjacent.  The  Romans  have  left 
their  mark  here,  as  they  have  done  in  many  parts 
of  Southwark.  In  1879  Mr.  R.  E.  Way  found, 
during  an  excavation  close  to  the  gateway,  frag- 
ments of  Samian  and  other  pottery,  iridescent 
oyster  shells,  portions  of  sandals,  coins  of  Claudius, 
a  metal  cup,  and  a  straight  sword  some  twenty- six 
inches  long.  These  most  interesting  relics  were 
at  a  depth  of  ten  to  twelve  feet  below  the  surface. 

In  the  fifteenth  century  Sir  John  Howard, 
already  referred  to  in  our  account  of  the  Tabard, 
seems  to  have  visited  most  of  the  Southwark  inns. 
On  November  30,  1496,  he  paid  "for  wyne  at  the 
Kynges   Hed   in    Sothewerke  iii"^ " ;  but  it  could 


scarcely  have  been  here,  because  this  was  one  of 
the  inns  changing  their  names  about  the  time  of 
the  Reformation,  or  as  the  result  of  the  altered 
conditions  which  that  event  produced.  It  has  been 
seen  how,  as  late  as  the  seventeenth  century,  the 
Cross  Keys  secularised  its  sign,  adopting  doubtless 
the  head  of  Queen  Elizabeth.  In  making  this 
change  the  owner  or  landlord  followed  an  example 
set  him  about  a  century  before  at  the  inn  now 
in  question.  Among  other  ecclesiastics  who  lodged 
in  Southwark  not  the  least  important  was  the 
Abbot  of  Waverley,  near  Farnham,  the  earliest 
house  of  the  Cistercian  order  in  England,  founded 
in  1128,  by  William  Giffard,  Bishop  of  Winchester. 
In  1534  the  Abbot,  still  apparently  at  his  town 
dwelling  near  the  river,  wrote  arranging  an  inter- 
view "at  the  Pope's  Head  in  Southwark."  This 
was  the  very  year  of  the  separation  of  the 
Church  of  England  from  Papal  headship.  About 
eight  years  afterwards  our  inn  is  marked  in 
a  Record  Office  map  as  the  "Kynges  Hed." 
In  some  deeds  very  kindly  lent  to  the  writer 
many  years  ago  by  Mr.  G.  Eliot  Hodgkin, 
F.S.A.,  the  famous  collector,  whose  family  for 
some  generations  possessed  the  property,  many 
interesting  points  appear.     The  first,  which  is  in 


the  curious  law  Latin  of  the  time,  is  dated  1559, 
and  shows  John  Gresham,  who  had  been  Mayor 
of  London  in  1547,  and  John  White,  Mayor  in 
1563,  agreeing  to  pay  a  certain  sum  of  money  to 
Thomas  Cure,  the  saddler,  M.P.  and  benefactor 
of  Southwark,  for  the  inn  "formerly  known  as 
the  Popes  hed,  now  as  le  Kynges  hed,  abutting 
on  the  highway  called  Longe  Southwarke." 

In  1588  the  property  passes  to  the  Humbles,  a 
well-known  Southwark  family.  In  the  will,  dated 
December  1604,  of  Anthony  Fawkes  of  South- 
wark, citizen  and  clothworker,  is  the  following 
clause : — "  To  my  son  Richard  Fawkes  and  his 
heirs  my  dwelling  house,  called  the  Kynge  Heade, 
with  all  the  brewing  vessels  pertaining  to  the 
brewhouse — suffering  my  now  wife,  Jane,  to  dwell 
there  during  her  widowhood."  Whether  this  was 
the  same  house  is  a  question,  for  in  1647  our  inn 
belonged  to  Humble,  first  Lord  Ward,  ancestor  of 
the  present  Earl  of  Dudley.  One  of  the  tenants 
at  this  time  was  described  as  "  William  le  pewterer,'* 
a  proof  that,  as  in  the  case  of  most  of  the  larger 
inns,  there  were  tenements  within  the  precinct  in 
which  trades  were  carried  on.  Provision  is  made 
that  the  various  tenants  shall  have  access  to  the 
pump   and    other   conveniences   at   all   reasonable 


times.  Soon  afterwards  a  farthing  trade  token 
was  issued  from  here  with  the  following  inscrip- 
tion : — 

Obverse. — at  •  the  •  kings  •  head  •  in  =  Bust  of 
Henry  VIII. 

Reverse, — sovthwarke  •  grocer  =  W.  P. 

The  King's  Head  was  one  of  the  inns  burnt 
down  in  the  great  fire  of  1676.  The  rent  had  been 
£66  a  year ;  after  that  calamity  it  was  settled  that 
the  tenant,  Mary  Duffield,  should  build  a  good 
substantial  inn  with  the  requisite  offices  ;  in  con- 
sideration of  her  doing  this,  the  rent  was  reduced 
from  £66  to  £38,  and  the  lease  extended  to  forty- 
eight  years.  In  1720  our  inn  is  reported  as  "  well 
built,  handsome,  and  enjoying  a  good  trade " ;  so 
Mary  Duffield,  forty  years  before,  had  done  her 
work  well.  The  late  Mr.  John  Timbs,  in  his 
Curiosities  of  London  (1875),  tells  us  that  within 
his  recollection  the  sign  was  a  well-painted  half- 
length  of  Henry  VIII.  Until  the  year  1879  the 
house  and  yard  were  still  almost  intact,  but  it 
was  then  very  much  curtailed,  a  new  public-house 
being  built  near  the  street  entrance.  Time  will 
have  his  way :  the  last  remains  of  the  east  side 
were  pulled  down  at  the  beginning  of  1885.     Our 


illustration  was  done  nearly  two  years  earlier,  the 
house  being  then  occupied  by  a  widow  and  her 
family,  who  owned  among  them  two  hansom 
cabs ;  and  so,  from  great  ecclesiastics  and  gentle- 
men of  the  olden  time,  we  descend  to  the  humble 
hard-working  cabman.  It  may  be  observed  that 
the  balustrades  in  the  gallery  are  of  peculiar  type, 
the  design  being  rather  Chinese  in  appearance. 
The  balustrades  of  the  old  Bull  and  Mouth  Inn, 
St.  Martin's -le- Grand,  were  somewhat  similar. 
It  seems  likely  that  these  were  put  up  after  Sir 
William  Chambers,  the  architect  (not  yet  knighted), 
had  studied  Chinese  buildings  and  published  the 
results  of  his  observations.  This  was  in  the  year 
1757,  and  his  book  certainly  influenced  the  designs 
of  the  period. 

Southwark,  besides  being  famous  for  its  inns, 
had  other  associations  of  a  less  cheerful  kind.  It 
was  emphatically  a  place  of  prisons.  In  the  Bishop 
of  Winchester's  manor  or  liberty,  known  as  the 
Clink,  was  situated  a  prison  of  that  name  where 
not  only,  as  Stow  puts  it,  "  such  as  should  babble, 
frey,  or  break  the  peace,"  but  debtors  and  those 
of  all  religious  denominations  who  resisted  the  law 
for  conscience'  sake  were  "  straitly  "  confined.  In 
a  limited  area  on  the  east  side  of  the  High  Street, 


and  therefore  close  to  the  inns  which  we  have  just 
described,  were  four  notable  gaols,  and  afterwards, 
partly  as  substitutes  when  time  had  done  its  decay- 
ing work,  four  more  at  least.  In  the  olden  days 
all  these  gaols  might  be  seen  almost  at  one  glance, 
the  Compter,  Marshalsea,  King's  Bench,  and  White 
Lion ;  later  and  more  widely  dispersed,  the  Bride- 
well, the  New  Gaol,  the  House  of  Correction,  the 
second  King's  Bench,  and  the  second  Marshalsea. 

East,  in  the  High  Street,  near  St.  George's 
Church,  stood  from  about  1560  the  White  Lion 
Prison,  which  was  used  to  confine  offenders  of  all 
sorts.  In  the  latter  part  of  the  seventeenth  century 
it  became  unsafe  for  the  detention  of  prisoners,  but 
the  old  place,  presumably  patched  up,  appears  to 
have  been  turned  into  a  House  of  Correction. 
Finally,  on  this  site,  in  1811,  was  built  the  later 
Marshalsea,  which  Dickens  immortalises  in  the 
story  of  Little  Dorrit,  and  of  which  there  are  still 
slight  remains.  Approaching  through  Angel  Place 
(named  after  a  former  Angel  Tavern),  one  sees  a 
grim  wall  on  the  right,  with  a  few  barred  windows. 
Of  the  rest  of  the  building  it  is  difficult  to  catch 
a  glimpse ;  perhaps  something  might  be  discerned 
from  a  piece  of  disused  burial-ground,  now  cut  off 
from  St.  George's  Church  by  the  new  road  of  the 


London  County  Council.  It  may  be  noted  that, 
when  this  road  was  being  made,  a  number  of  terra- 
cotta architectural  fragments  came  to  light,  which 
in  all  probability  had  helped  to  decorate  the  splendid 
mansion  of  Charles  Brandon,  Duke  of  Suffolk,  who 
married  Mary,  sister  of  Henry  VIII.  and  widow  of 
Louis  XII.  of  France,  and  was  grandfather  of  the 
ill-fated  Lady  Jane  Grey.  He  built  this  mansion 
to  the  west  of  the  High  Street  and  near  St.  George's 
Church  about  the  year  1516,  or  a  little  after,  and 
here  in  1522,  when  Charles  V.  visited  England,  he 
received  both  the  King  and  Emperor,  and  they 
dined  and  hunted  with  him.  It  afterwards  passed 
into  the  possession  of  the  King,  and  became  a  mint 
for  coins.  In  Queen  Mary's  time  it  was  pulled 
down,  and  under  the  name  of  the  Mint  this  pre- 
cinct was  notorious  as  a  sanctuary  for  insolvent 
debtors,  and  a  place  of  refuge  for  lawless  persons 
of  all  descriptions,  not  effectually  suppressed  until 
the  reign  of  George  I.  It  should  be  added  that 
the  original  Marshalsea  Prison  was  some  distance 
farther  north,  on  the  east  side  of  the  High  Street, 
exactly  opposite  Maypole  Alley. 

Between  the  earlier  and  later  Marshalsea  was 
the  King's  Bench,  of  ancient  origin,  for  to  this 
gaol  Henry,   Prince  of  Wales,  afterwards  Henry 


v.,  was  committed  by  Judge  Gascoigne  for  striking 
or  insulting  him  on  the  bench.  In  course  of 
time  it  became  largely,  though  not  altogether, 
a  prison  for  debtors.  In  May  1653,  during  the 
Commonwealth,  when  it  was  called  the  Upper 
Bench  Prison,  there  were  399  prisoners  within 
the  building  and  the  rules,  whose  united  debts 
amounted  to  over  £900,000.  The  rules  were  certain 
— or  apparently  rather  uncertain — boundaries,  with- 
in which,  but  outside  the  prison,  privileged  debtors 
could  reside.  De  Foe  remarks  of  them :  "  The  rules 
of  the  King's  Bench  are  more  extensive  than  those 
of  the  Fleet,  having  all  St.  George's  Fields  to  walk 
in ;  but  the  Prison  House  is  not  near  so  good "  ; 
and  Shadwell,  in  his  play  called  Epsom  Wells 
(1676),  makes  Bevil  say:  "But  by  your  leave, 
Raines,  though  marriage  be  a  prison,  yet  you  may 
make  the  rules  as  those  of  the  King's  Bench,  that 
extend  to  the  East  Indies,"  The  chief  officer  was 
called  "the  Marshal  of  the  Marshalsea  of  the 
King's  Bench,"  and  he  derived  most  of  his  income 
from  payments  by  prisoners  for  the  privilege  of  the 
"  liberty  of  the  rules."  This  prison  was  removed  in 
1755-1758  to  what  was  then  a  part  of  St.  George's 
Fields,  at  the  junction  of  Blackman  Street  with 
Newington   Causeway,   where  later  the  Borough 


Road  joined  those  streets.  It  was  burnt  in  the 
Gordon  riots,  but  was  soon  afterwards  rebuilt.  By 
an  Act  of  William  IV.  it  ceased  to  be  a  separate 
gaol,  the  Fleet  and  Marshalsea  being  united 
with  it,  and  later  it  was  known  as  the  Queen's 
Prison.  Arrest  for  debt  having  been  abolished  by 
an  Act  of  32  and  33  Viet.  c.  62,  it  was  closed  for  a 
time,  and  was  afterwards  used  as  a  military  prison, 
but  not  being  found  convenient  for  this  purpose  it 
was  finally  destroyed  in  1879,  the  site  being  now 
occupied  by  workmen's  dwellings.  It  was  in  the 
King's  Bench  that  Dickens's  Mr.  Micawber  is  sup- 
posed to  have  dwelt,  pending  the  arrangement  of 
his  financial  difficulties ;  and  in  Nicholas  Nickleby 
the  hero  visits  Madeline  Bray,  when  she  is  residing 
with  her  father  in  one  of  "  a  row  of  mean  and  not 
over  cleanly  houses,  situated  within  the  rules." 
The  passage  to  the  earlier  King's  Bench  Prison 
lay  a  little  south  of  the  existing  Half  Moon  Inn, 
the  painted  sign  of  which  appears  in  Hogarth's 
picture  of  Southwark  Fair.  A  sculptured  sign  is 
still  to  be  seen  there  having  on  it  the  date  1690. 
In  Rocque's  map  of  1746  a  considerable  open 
space  covered  with  trees  is  shown  at  the  back  of 
the  prison.  By  the  end  of  the  century  it  had 
become  Layton's  Yard.     Although  much  curtailed 


a  part  of  this  still  exists,  being  called,  with  the 
passage  approaching  it,  Layton's  Buildings.  Some 
of  the  houses  are  old-fashioned,  and  it  still  has 
rather  a  rural  appearance,  as  may  be  seen  from  our 
accompanying  illustration. 

Near  the  later  King's  Bench  or  Queen's  Prison, 
in  Horsemonger  Lane,  now  Union  Road,  Newing- 
ton  Causeway,  was  another  comparatively  modern 
prison  called  Horsemonger  Lane  Gaol.  It  was 
built  between  1791  and  1798,  as  a  county  gaol 
or  Surrey,  the  walls  enclosing  about  three  and 
a  half  acres,  and  Leigh  Hunt  was  confined  there 
during  two  years  for  a  libel  on  the  Prince  Regent. 
During  his  imprisonment  here  Keats  addressed  a 
sonnet  to  him,  and  he  was  visited  by  Lord  Byron 
and  Tom  Moore.  Outside  this  gaol  public  execu- 
tions took  place,  and  Dickens,  who  witnessed  the 
execution  of  the  Mannings  in  November  1849,  has 
left  us  a  painful  description  of  the  scene.  Most 
of  this  site  of  untold  misery  is  now  occupied  by 
a  pubhc  playground,  a  great  boon  to  the  neigh- 
bourhood ;  but  why  is  it  thought  necessary  to 
disfigure  the  whole  area  with  ugly  asphalt  pave- 
ment ? 

Almost  if  not  quite  as  interesting  as  the 
Borough  High  Street,  although  later  settled,  was 


that  part  of  Southwark  lying  along  the  river  to  the 
west  of  Winchester  House,  which  is  usually  called 
the  Bankside.  Its  more  eastern  portion  has  already 
been  referred  to  as  the  Clink  Liberty,  and  adjoin- 
ing it  on  the  west  was  the  Manor  or  Liberty  of 
Paris  Garden,  which  is  held  to  correspond  with 
what  in  the  twelfth  century  was  the  hide  of  land 
called  Widflete,  which  Robert  Marmion,  son  of  a 
follower  of  William  the  Conqueror,  gave  to  Ber- 
mondsey  Priory  in  1113.  It  was  originally  in  the 
once  large  parish  of  St.  Margaret,  Southwark,  and 
now  forms  the  parish  of  Christchurch,  containing 
rather  less  than  a  hundred  acres  of  land,  which 
extends  back  on  each  side  of  the  present  Blackfriars 
Road.  The  river  forms  the  northern  limit,  with 
Blackfriars  Bridge  a  little  to  the  east  of  its  centre ; 
to  the  west  is  the  parish  of  Lambeth  ;  the  parish 
of  St.  George-the-Martyr  being  more  or  less  the 
southern,  and  St.  Saviour's  the  eastern  boundary. 
It  was  a  swampy,  low -lying  place,  and  in  early 
times  the  land  limitations  were  partly  if  not  wholly 
defined  by  streams  or  broad  ditches,  one  of  which 
on  the  western  side  had  an  outlet  to  the  river  by 
the  Broadwall,  where  there  was  an  ancient  embank- 
ment, while  near  the  north-east  corner  the  "Pudding 
Mill  stream"  passed  close  to  the  site  of  what  is 


now  called  Falcon  Wharf.     This  must  originally 

have  connected  the  old  Widflete  Mill  pond  with 

the  Thames ;  but  in  course  of  time  it  degenerated 

into   a   sewer,  no  longer  in  existence.      All  this 

land,    belonging    to    the    Priory,    afterwards    the 

Abbey,  of  Bermondsey,  was  held  successively  by 

the    Knights   Templars   and   others,  later   by  the 

Knights   Hospitallers,  but  the   superior  rights  of 

the  Abbey  do  not  appear  to  have  been  affected. 

Coming  into  the  hands  of  the  Crown  shortly  before 

the  Dissolution,  it  formed  part  of  the  dowry  of 

Jane  Seymour.      Queen   Elizabeth   exchanged   it 

with  her  cousin,  Henry  Carey,  first  Lord  Hunsdon, 

who  in  1580  alienated  the  copyhold  portion  of  the 

manor  to  trustees  and  conveyed  the  lordship  and 

freehold  manor  to  Thomas  Cure,  Queen's  saddler, 

to  whom  we  have  referred  in  our  account  of  the 

King's  Head  Inn,  and  whose  quaint  epitaph  is  still 

to  be  seen  in  St.  Saviour's  Church.     The  name  of 

the  manor  seems  to  have  been  derived  from  one 

Robert   de    Paris,   who   possessed  a  house   there, 

which  must  have  become  undesirable  as  a  residence, 

for  close  at  hand  it  was  by  proclamation  ordained, 

in  the  sixteenth  year  of  the  reign  of  Richard  II., 

that    the    butchers    of    London    should    have    a 

convenient    place    for    their    offal     and    garbage. 


in  order  that  the  City  might  not  be  annoyed 

To  turn  to  the  aspects  of  the  district  in  the 
sixteenth  century,  Fleetwood,  Recorder  of  London, 
in  a  letter  to  Lord  Burleigh,  July  13,  1578,  speaks 
of  it  as  "dark  and  much  shadowed  with  trees,  that 
one  man  cannot  see  another  unless  they  have  lynceos 
oculos  or  els  cattes  eys.  There  be  certain  virgulta 
or  eightes  of  willows  set  by  the  Thames  near  that 
place,  they  grow  now  exceeding  thick  and  are  a 
notable  covert  for  confederates  to  shrowd  in" — a 
shady  place  in  more  senses  than  one.  In  the 
famous  view  of  London  attributed  to  Agas  there 
are  houses  in  Paris  Garden  near  the  Thames,  and 
leading  to  it  is  a  landing  stage  with  boats  thereat. 
In  the  roadway  from  Lambeth,  and  near  these 
stairs,  a  cross  is  depicted.  Standing  back  is  a  large 
detached  building,  probably  the  Manor  House. 
The  rest  is  open  ground — woodland,  and  pasture, 
with  numerous  ditches.  To  the  east  of  Paris 
Garden,  near  the  Bankside,  are  amphitheatres 
called  respectively  "TheBolle  Bayting"  and  "The 
Beare  Bayting,"  having  ponds  near  them.  In  a 
plan  of  1627,  due  east  of  the  Manor  House  appears 
"  The  Olde  Play  House." 

The  fact  that  these  places  of  entertainment  are 


here  shown,  reminds  one  of  the  theatrical  perform- 
ances and  rough  sports,  such  as  bull  and  bear 
baiting,  with  which  the  Bankside  was  so  much 
associated  during  many  years.  These  latter,  which 
even  monarchs  patronised,  were  usually  said  to 
take  place  in  Paris  Garden,  but  although  probably 
such  performances  occurred  there  in  earlier  times, 
it  is  proved  that  the  more  or  less  permanent  amphi- 
theatres in  which  animals  were  baited  during  the 
latter  part  of  the  sixteenth  and  the  seventeenth 
century  were  really  in  the  adjoining  Clink  Liberty, 
which  pertained,  as  we  have  said,  to  the  Bishops  of 
Winchester,  where  also,  strange  to  say,  the  legalised 
stew-houses  had  existed  from  the  time  of  Henry  II., 
with  one  short  interval,  until  1546.  Stow  tells  us 
that  they  "had  signs  on  their  fronts  towards  the 
Thames,  not  hanged  out,  but  painted  on  the  walls, 
as  a  Boar  s  Head,  the  Cross  Keys,  the  Gun,  the 
Crane,  the  Cardinal's  Hat,  the  Bell,  the  Swan,  etc." 
A  reminiscence  of  one  of  them  exists  in  Cardinal 
Cap  Alley,  so  named,  a  narrow  passage  running 
south  from  the  Bankside.  In  the  eighteenth  year 
of  the  reign  of  James  I.,  Taylor  "the  water-poet," 
then  grown  old,  as  a  witness  in  Exchequer  deposi- 
tions declared  that  "  the  game  of  bear  bay  ting  "  had 
within  his  recollection  been  kept  in  four  several 


places,  all  clearly  east  of  Paris  Garden.  One  of 
them,  the  New  Bear  Garden,  otherwise  the  Hope, 
built  in  1613,  on  the  plan  of  a  regular  theatre,  with 
movable  tressels  fit  to  bear  a  stage,  was  also  used 
for  plays,  just  as  the  theatres  were  now  and 
then  used  for  other  performances.  Ben  Jonson's 
Bartholomew  Fair  was  played  at  the  Hope  the 
year  after  it  was  opened.  Farley,  in  1621,  among 
other  entertainments,  speaks  of — 

A  Moms  dance,  a  puppet  play, 
Mad  Tom  to  sing  a  roundelay, 
A  woman  dancing  on  a  rope, 
Bull  baiting  also — at  the  Hope. 

During  the  Commonwealth  these  bull  and  bear 
rings  were  suppressed ;  but  they  again  came  into 
fashion,  and  we  know  that  Pepys  and  Evelyn  both 
witnessed  the  sports  there,  and  each  has  left  a  char- 
acteristic account  of  them.  There  is  an  advertise- 
ment of  *'the  Hope  on  the  Bankside,  being  his 
Majesty's  Bear  Garden,"  as  late  as  the  year  1682. 

Besides  the  places  of  entertainment  thus  briefly 
alluded  to,  three  regular  playhouses  were  also 
built  in  this  neighbourhood,  because  on  account 
of  puritanical  leanings  the  municipal  authorities 
objected  to  their  establishment  within  the  confines 
of  the  City,  and  they  attracted  to  the  Bankside 


players  of  the  highest  rank.  The  most  famous,  of 
course,  is  the  Globe,  first  built  by  Richard  Burbage 
and  his  brother  in  1599,  burnt  down  in  1613,  and 
rebuilt  immediately  afterwards  ;  the  name  of  which 
is  known  throughout  the  civilised  world  from 
Shakespeare's  intimate  connection  with  it.  Here 
played  the  company  of  which  he  was  a  member. 
It  is  a  fact  which  perhaps  has  not  been  before 
pointed  out,  that,  previous  to  the  year  1603,  when 
its  members  were  promoted  to  the  rank  of  King's 
players,  this  company  had  been  under  the  patron- 
age of  the  first  and  second  Lords  Hunsdon,  who 
were  in  succession  Lords  Chamberlain,  so  that  the 
connection  of  the  former  with  this  district  was  a 
twofold  one.  He  had,  however,  parted  with  the 
Manor  of  Paris  Garden  long  before  he  became 
patron  of  the  company.  We  may  call  to  mind  that 
Shakespeare  was  living  "  near  the  Bear  Garden  "  in 
1596 — so  says  his  contemporary  Edward  AUeyn, 
who  on  February  19,  1592,  had  opened  a  theatre, 
called  the  Hose,  hard  by,  which  is  thought  to  have 
been  the  earliest  scene  of  Shakespeare's  successes, 
both  as  actor  and  dramatist. 

Both  these  playhouses  were  in  the  Clink  Liberty. 
The  Paris  Garden  Theatre  was  the  Swan — the 
"  Olde  Play  House  "  of  the  1627  plan.     It  seems 


to  have  been  built  soon  after  1594  by  Francis 
Langley,  Lord  of  the  Freehold  Manor  of  Paris 
Garden.  We  are  told  of  various  performances  at 
this  house,  among  the  rest  that  Ben  Jonson  here 
played  the  character  of  Zulziman  ;  but  its  chief 
interest  to  modern  students  of  the  old  theatres 
lies  in  the  fact  that,  in  or  about  the  year  1596,  a 
German  visitor  named  Johannes  de  Witt  wrote  a 
description  of  it,  accompanied  by  a  spirited  sketch 
of  the  interior,  which  has  several  times  been  repro- 
duced, the  whole  having  been  published  at  Bremen 
in  1888.  In  the  Accounts  of  the  Overseers  of  the 
Poor  of  Paris  Garden  from  1608  onwards,  printed 
for  the  first  time  with  notes  and  an  introduction  by 
the  writer,  the  Swan  is  four  or  five  times  referred  to 
by  name.  In  1610-11  this  playhouse  contributed 
£4:6:8  for  the  poor.  The  last  reference,  that  of 
1620-21,  shows  that  the  sum  of  £3  :  19  : 4  was  then 
received  of  the  Swan  players.  In  a  tract  of  1632, 
where  mention  is  made  of  the  Globe,  the  Hope,  and 
the  Swan,  we  are  told  that  the  last,  "  beeing  in  times 
past  as  famous  as  any  of  the  others,  was  now  fallen 
to  decay,  and  like  a  dying  Swanne,  hanging  downe 
her  head,  seemed  to  sing  her  own  dirge."  We  may 
suppose,  therefore,  that  the  place  had  then  seen  its 
best  days  and  was  rapidly  coming  to  an  end.     The 


sites  of  these  old  playhouses  and  bull  and  bear 
rings  can  be  more  or  less  accurately  traced. 
Barclay's  great  Anchor  Brewery,  extending  over 
thirteen  acres,  has  absorbed  the  site  of  the  Globe, 
and,  apart  from  this  great  memory,  is  on  its  own 
account  almost  classic  ground,  because  at  the 
Thrales'  house  attached  to  it  Dr.  Johnson  spent 
much  of  his  happiest  time  in  the  congenial  society 
of  them  and  of  their  intimates,  and  at  the  brewery, 
after  Mr.  Thrale's  untimely  death,  Johnson,  when 
zealously  working  as  executor  at  the  sale  of  the 
business,  gave  that  characteristic  answer  to  one 
who  asked  its  value  :  "  We  are  not  here  to  sell  a 
parcel  of  boilers  and  vats,  but  the  potentiality  of 
growing  rich  beyond  the  dreams  Of  avarice." 

North-west  of  the  brewery,  between  the  Bank- 
side  and  Park  Street,  formerly  Maid  Lane,  is 
Rose  Alley,  which  marks  the  site  of  the  theatre 
of  that  name.  A  little  farther  west  is  an  alley 
called  Bear  Gardens,  near  the  north  end  of  which 
appears  to  have  stood  what  was  known  as  the 
Old  Bear  Garden,  taken  down  in  1613,  while  the 
site  of  the  Hope  or  New  Bear  Garden  is  near  the 
south  end,  where  it  opens  out  into  a  tiny  square. 
The  other  two  bear-baiting  places  which  Taylor 
remembered  were  both  farther  west,  one  of  them 


being  at  Mason  Stairs  on  the  Bankside,  and  the 
second  near  Maid  Lane  at  the  corner  of  the  Pike 
Garden,  and  these  appear  to  correspond  with  the 
rings  for  "  bolle  bay  ting  "  and  for  "  beare  bay  ting  " 
marked  in  the  ancient  plan  attributed  to  Agas. 

On  the  extreme  confines  of  the  Clink  Liberty, 
where  it  touches  Paris  Garden,  and  a  short  distance 
east  of  the  site  of  the  Swan  Theatre,  an  inn  called 
the  Falcon  was  standing  until  the  first  decade  of  the 
nineteenth  century,  which,  if  we  may  accept  a  not 
unlikely  tradition,  was  once  the  haunt  of  Shake- 
speare and  his  fellows  ;  an  illustration  of  it  may 
be  seen  in  Wilkinson's  Londina  Illustrata,  dated 
1805.  The  site  is  now  occupied  by  Falcon  Wharf 
and  Dock.  Adjoining  it  on  the  west  is  a  brick 
building  in  the  occupation  of  the  Hydraulic  Power 
Company.  This  is  now  modernised  and  apparently 
of  little  architectural  interest,  but  after  carefully 
comparing  various  plans  and  views  the  writer  has 
come  to  the  conclusion  that  it  is  the  very  house 
declared  in  Concanen  and  Morgan's  history  of  St. 
Saviour's  parish  (1795)  to  have  been  built  by  Sir 
Christopher  Wren,  for  Mr.  Jones,  master  of  the 
Falcon  Iron  Foundry,  which  occupied  the  space 
between  this  and  the  river.  They  add  that  he 
cast  the  railings  for  St.  Paul's  Cathedral.     On  a 


drawing  in  the  Gardner  collection,  dated  1789, 
which  obviously  represents  this  house,  is  the  follow- 
ing statement  in  writing  by  W.  Capon  the  artist : — 
"From  a  balcony  at  the  top  of  the  house  Sir 
Christopher  used  to  watch  the  work  at  St.  Paul's 
as  it  proceeded ;  it  was  his  constant  custom  to  do 
so  in  the  morning — I  was  so  informed  by  a  very 
old  gentleman  belonging  to  the  foundry."  The 
railings  of  St.  Paul's  are  generally  said  to  have 
been  cast  at  Lamberhurst,  on  the  borders  of  Kent 
and  Sussex,  and  to  be  among  the  last  known 
specimens  of  Sussex  iron ;  but  in  the  original 
account  books  of  the  building  of  St.  Paul's 
Cathedral  there  is  an  entry  of  the  payment  of  over 
£11,200  to  "Richard  Jones,  smith,  for  the  Large 
Iron  Fence  round  the  Church,"  besides  £25  :  18s. 
to  John  Slyford  "for  carriage,  etc.,  of  Mr.  Jones's 
Irone  Worke  from  the  Water  side  to  the  Church." 
Perhaps  the  railings  were  cast  at  Lamberhurst  for 
the  Falcon  Foundry  and  fitted  there. 

A  short  distance  south,  opening  upon  that  part 
of  Holland  Street  which  was  formerly  called  Green 
Walk,  are  some  rather  picturesque  almshouses 
founded  by  one  Charles  Hopton  in  1752  for  the 
benefit  of  people  of  reduced  circumstances  and 
good  character  belonging  to  the  parish  of  Christ- 


church.  Here,  m  an  iron-bound  chest,  are  preserved 
the  title-deeds  of  the  copyhold  portion  of  the 
Manor  of  Paris  Garden,  in  which  the  writer  may 
perhaps  be  allowed  to  take  special  interest,  as  his 
family  has  for  some  generations  been  connected 
with  it.  The  steward  has  in  his  keeping  an 
ebony  rod  tipped  w4th  silver,  having  on  it  "  Edward 
Knight,  Baylif,  1697,"  and  a  later  date.  This 
rod  is  still  used  at  the  surrendering  of  property, 
the  steward  holding  one  end,  and  the  surrendering 
and  the  incoming  tenant  in  turn  the  other.  Much 
of  the  property,  however,  is  now  enfranchised. 

On  looking  at  old  plans  of  the  Bankside  one  is 
struck  by  the  number  of  stairs  giving  access  to 
the  river,  an  indication  of  the  fact  that  in  the 
time  of  the  theatres  and  of  other  more  question- 
able centres  of  attraction  the  paying  public  was 
mostly  conveyed  thereto  by  boat.  Thus  Southwark 
watermen  were  plentiful,  and  drove  a  roaring 
trade.  The  man  among  them  best  known  to 
later  generations  was  John  Taylor,  already  several 
times  referred  to,  who  championed  their  cause, 
and  at  the  same  time  advertised  himself  in 
amusing,  if  artless,  rhyme.  The  river  being  to 
him  a  source  of  livelihood,  he  naturally  praised 
it  with  his  whole  heart : — 


But  noble  Thames,  whilst  I  can  hold  my  pen, 
I  will  divulge  thy  glory  unto  men : 
Thou  in  the  morning,  when  my  coin  is  scant. 
Before  the  evening  dost  supply  my  want. 

His  great  grievance  was  the  advent  of  coaches, 
which  interfered  with  his  business.  In  a  prose 
tract,  published  in  1623,  he  says :  "  I  do  not 
inveigh  against  any  coaches  that  belong  to  persons 
of  worth  and  quality,  but  only  against  the  cater- 
pillar swarm  of  hirelings.  They  have  undone  my 
poor  trade  whereof  I  am  a  member ;  and  though  I 
look  for  no  reformation,  yet  I  expect  the  benefit  of 
an  old  proverb,  '  Give  the  losers  leave  to  speak.' " 
In  a  pamphlet  called  An  Arrant  Thief,  he  indi- 
cates the  approximate  date  of  the  introduction  of 
these  vehicles  which  so  raised  his  ire : — 

W^hen  Queen  Elizabeth  came  to  the  crown, 
A  coach  in  England  then  was  scarcely  known ; 
Then  'twas  as  rare  to  see  one  as  to  spy 
A  tradesman  that  had  never  told  a  lie. 

In  spite  of  Taylor's  gloomy  forebodings,  the  river 
almost  throughout  the  seventeenth  century  must 
have  been  in  its  glory  as  a  thoroughfare. 

Before  quitting  the  subject  of  Southwark  water- 
men, the  writer  is  tempted  to  transcribe  the  follow- 
ing epitaph  which  is  engraved  on  a  large  slab  now 


placed  upright  against  the  east  wall  of  the  Lady 
Chapel  of  St.  Saviour's,  having  been  dug  up  from 
under  the  floor  during  the  restoration  of  1832  : — 
"Nicholas  Norman,  Waterman,  late  Servante  to 
the  King's  Maiestie,  and  Elizabeth  his  wife,  were 
here  buryed,  hee  the  25  of  May,  1629,  and  shee 
the  15  of  Januarye  folio weinge,  who  lived  16  years 
together  in  the  holie  state  of  matrimonie,  and  do 
here  rest  in  hope  of  a  ioyfull  resurrection." 

Whole  districts  of  South wark  must,  in  this 
volume  at  least,  remain  unchronicled — Bermondsey, 
for  instance — the  seat  of  the  great  Cluniac  Abbey 
of  St.  Saviour,  and  Horsleydown,  portrayed  in  a 
famous  picture  by  Joris  Hoefnagel,  now  belonging 
to  the  Marquis  of  Salisbury.  Something  can  still 
be  found  there  that  is  of  interest  alike  to  the  artist 
and  the  antiquary,  but  more  attractive  subjects 
call  us  to  the  opposite  side  of  the  river.  As,  full 
of  thoughts  about  the  old  South  wark  theatres,  we 
pass  the  great  church  now  called  St.  Saviours, 
a  splendid  relic  of  the  Augustinian  Priory  of 
St.  Mary  Overy,  we  may  call  to  mind  that  the 
friends  and  fellow  -  dramatists,  Beaumont  and 
Fletcher,  dwelt  together  on  the  Bankside  near  the 
Globe,  and  that  the  latter,  having  died  of  the 
plague,  was  buried  in   St.  Saviour's ;   that  Philip 


Massinger,  also  Fletcher's  intimate,  lived  and 
died  near  the  same  place,  and  was  buried  as  a 
"stranger,"  that  is  a  non- parishioner,  in  the  St. 
Saviour's  burial-ground,  which  was  called  the  Bull 
Head  Churchyard  ;  and  that  Shakespeare's  brother 
Edmond,  "a  player,"  was  buried  in  St.  Saviour's 
Church  on  December  31,  1607,  "with  a  forenoone 
knell  of  the  great  bell." 



Oh  !  London  won't  be  London  long. 

For  'twill  be  all  pulled  down. 
And  I  shall  sing-  a  funeral  song 

O'er  that  time-honoured  town. 

W.  Maginn. 

Our  way  now  lies  over  London  Bridge,  and  while 
crossing  the  river  into  the  City  the  opportunity 
should  not  be  lost  of  glancing  at  a  few  of  Wren's 
beautiful  steeples,  one  of  the  finest  being  here  the 
most  conspicuous,  namely,  that  of  St.  Magnus 
which,  be  it  remembered,  stood  more  or  less  in  a 
line  with  old  London  Bridge.  The  pathway  for 
foot-passengers  which  formed  part  of  the  road 
leading  straight  to  the  bridge  passed  through  the 
existing  open  passage  under  the  tower. 

What  we  now  call  the  City  once  comprised  the 
whole  of  London,  and  it  is  a  remarkable, fact  that 
the  site  of  the  Roman  walls,  of  which  traces  still 



exist,  continue  to  this  day  to  be  the  limitations  of 
what  is,  strictly  speaking,  the  City,  though  districts 
"  without "  the  walls  have  from  time  to  time  been 
added.  The  Great  Fire  of  London  swept  away 
five -sixths  of  the  older  City,  and  time  and  the 
jerry -builder  have  almost  completed  the  removal 
of  the  rest.  But  the  Fire  occurred  many  genera- 
tions ago,  and  the  structures  erected  within  fifty 
years  of  that  event  have  now  a  respectable  anti- 
quity. The  three  kinds  of  building  to  which, 
perhaps,  the  student  of  old  London  would  first 
direct  his  steps  in  the  City  are  the  churches  dating 
from  before  the  Great  Fire,  St.  Paul's  Cathedral 
and  the  parish  churches  designed  by  Sir  Christopher 
Wren,  and  thirdly,  the  Guildhall,  together  with 
some  twenty  halls  of  the  City  Companies,  the  rest 
of  these  being  modern.  Externally  the  Guildhall 
shows  few  traces  of  antiquity,  but  the  interior  of 
the  fifteenth -century  porch  has  considerable  merit, 
and  the  large  crypt  is  a  remarkably  interesting 
specimen  of  mediaeval  architecture.  With  the 
exception,  however,  of  some  of  Wren's  churches 
destroyed  within  the  last  few  years,  and  of  others 
which,  we  fear,  are  in  danger  of  destruction, 
these  buildings  fortunately  do  not  come  under 
the  title  of  "vanished"  or  "vanishing."     Thus  it 


happens  that  the  writer  has  turned  his  attention 
most  to  the  study  of  old  houses  which,  on  account 
of  their  picturesqueness,  sometimes  of  their  historic 
interest,  appeared  worthy  of  record.  He  has,  how- 
ever, included  views  of  churches,  and  of  other 
relics,  ranging  from  a  piece  of  the  Roman  wall  to 
buildings  as  late  as  the  eighteenth  century,  which 
have  been  destroyed  within  the  last  few  years. 

In  the  early  days  of  English  history  Royalty 
itself  and  powerful  nobles  had  dwellings  in  or 
near  the  City,  and  various  place-names  still  sur- 
viving attest  the  fact.  By  Charles  II.'s  time, 
however,  most  of  the  great  people  had  moved 
west,  leaving  the  business  part  of  the  town  to  the 
merchants  and  traders,  from  whose  ranks  so  many 
of  the  present  aristocracy  may  trace  their  origin. 
Of  the  appearance  of  London  before  the  Great 
Fire  we  can  form  a  very  good  idea  from  views  and 
descriptions,  and  from  the  few  houses  which  until 
lately  have  survived.  As  a  rule,  they  had  their 
gables  towards  the  street,  and  were  of  timber  or 
half-timbered  construction,  many  of  the  fronts 
being  beautifully  carved  or  decorated  with  fine 
plaster  work.  Stow  records  the  existence  of  stone 
houses,  but  as  if  it  were  something  uncommon. 
Doubtless  brickwork  was  also  used  as  a  building^ 


material ;  Lincoln's  Inn  gateway,  still  happily  in 
good  condition  in  spite  of  reports  to  the  contrary, 
dates  from  the  year  1518,  and,  outside  the  area 
with  which  we  are  now  dealing,  the  gateways  of 
St.  James's  Palace  and  Lambeth  Palace  are  also 
early  examples  of  brickwork.  After  the  Great 
Fire,  brick  became  the  almost  exclusive  building 
material  for  houses ;  and  that  eminently  practical 
genius.  Wren,  while  building  St.  Paul's  and  his 
great  series  of  City  churches,  although  not  allowed 
to  carry  out  his  scheme  for  reconstructing  the 
streets,  also  clearly  set  the  fashion  in  domestic 
architecture.  He  was  in  truth  the  father  of  the 
style  now  called  by  the  name  of  Queen  Anne, 
though  it  began  before  her  reign  and,  with  gradual 
modifications,  continued  long  afterwards.  Most 
of  the  City  houses  to  which  reference  will  here 
be  made  are  more  or  less  in  that  style,  but  there 
are  a  few  examples  of  earlier  work. 

In  the  home  of  the  city  merchant,  as  rebuilt 
after  the  Fire,  there  was  no  attempt  to  vie  with 
the  sumptuous  palaces  which  rose  in  the  land 
during  the  early  days  of  the  Renaissance,  but  it 
had  the  supreme  merit  of  being  thoroughly  suit- 
able for  its  purpose.  Outside  there  was  little  dis- 
play, though  cut  brick,  a  charming  material,  often 


helped  the  effect.  The  chief  ornament  was  con- 
centrated on  that  part  which  would  be  most  seen, 
namely  the  doorway.  Within,  the  offices  were  as 
a  rule  on  the  ground  floor.  A  well-proportioned 
staircase,  with  turned  and  often  twisted  balusters, 
led  to  the  chief  reception  rooms,  and  here  the 
architect,  or  builder,  worked  with  a  loving  care — 
the  mantelpiece,  the  panelling,  the  cornice,  the 
mahogany  doors,  the  carved  architraves  and  over- 
doors  were  each  in  its  way  beautiful,  and  each 
formed  part  of  a  harmonious  whole.  We  will  now 
try  to  introduce  to  our  readers  a  few  of  the  older 
City  mansions,  and  incidentally  we  will  tell  some- 
thing about  those  who  dwelt  in  them.  On  con- 
sideration we  find  that  the  subject  does  not  entirely 
lend  itself  to  any  rigid  arrangement ;  the  reader 
will  therefore  perhaps  pardon  us  if,  both  as  regards 
time  and  place,  we  group  our  facts  together  in 
the  way  that  most  easily  suggests  itself,  without 
attempting  to  be  quite  methodical. 

On  the  west  side  of  Bishopsgate  Street  With- 
out, some  years  ago,  the  Great  Eastern  Railway 
Company  cleared  away  a  space  nearly  a  quarter 
of  a  mile  in  length  which  involved  the  removal,  at 
the  end  of  1890,  of  what  remained  of  Sir  Paul 
Pindar's  house,    a   beautiful   work   of  art,   and   a 


unique  fragment  of  a  great  merchant's  residence  at 
the  beginning  of  the  seventeenth  century.  The  oak 
front,  with  its  matchless  carved  work,  is  now  to 
be  seen  in  the  South  Kensington  Museum.  The 
finely  decorated  plaster  ceiling  from  a  room  on  the 
first  floor  was  at  the  same  time  removed  to  South 
Kensington,  where  there  is  another  fine  ceiling 
said  to  be  similar  in  style,  which  was  acquired 
some  thirteen  years  previously,  when  the  house 
next  to  Sir  Paul  Pindar's,  on  the  left  side  of  our 
illustration,  was  taken  down.  The  room  which 
contained  the  ceiling  first  mentioned  was  also 
decorated  with  good  oak  panelling,  and  originally 
with  a  grotesque  but  handsome  chimney-piece, 
having  on  it  the  date  1600,  removed  early  in  the 
nineteenth  century,  when  the  room  was  made 
what  the  occupants  called  "a  little  comfortable." 
Doubtless  the  original  mansion  included  the  adjoin- 
ing house  and  a  good  deal  more  besides.  There 
must  have  been  gardens  at  the  back,  and  a  build- 
ing decorated  with  plaster  work,  usually  called 
"the  Lodge,"  which  once  stood  in  Half  Moon 
Street,  was  said  by  tradition  to  have  been  occupied 
by  the  gardener. 

Sir  Paul  Pindar  was  not  only  a  merchant  but 
a  diplomatist.     His  early  manhood  was  spent  in 



Italy.  He  afterwards  held  a  post  at  Aleppo,  and 
in  1811,  on  the  recommendation  of  the  Turkey 
Company,  was  sent  by  James  I.  as  ambassador  to 
Constantinople,  where  he  resided,  with  intervals 
spent  in  England,  for  nine  years.  Pindar  brought 
from  the  east  some  wonderful  jewels;  a  diamond 
belonging  to  him,  valued  in  1824  at  £35,000,  was 
lent  to  James  I.  to  wear  on  state  occasions,  and 
was  afterwards  bought  by  Charles  I.  for  a  smaller 
sum,  payment  being  deferred.  He  advanced 
enormous  sums  to  that  monarch  and  others,  in 
consequence,  after  his  death,  which  occurred  on 
August  22,  1650,  his  affairs  were  found  to  be  so 
much  entangled  that  his  executor  and  cashier, 
William  Toomes,  after  vainly  trying  to  unravel  them 
committed  suicide.  Sir  Paul  was  a  parishioner  of 
St.  Botolph's,  Bishopsgate,  and  presented  com- 
munion plate  to  that  church,  which  has  been  either 
sold  or  melted.  In  St.  Botolph's  account  books 
are  entries  recording  various  gifts  of  venison  by 
him  on  the  occasion  of  feasts,  which  did  not, 
however,  save  him  from  being  fined  for  eating 
meat  on  fish  days  by  the  ungrateful  parish  author- 
ities. He  was  buried  in  St.  Botolph's  Church,  and 
his  monument  there,  which  used  to  be  on  the 
north   side   of  the  chancel   but   is  now  relegated 


to  some  obscure  corner,  describes  him  as  "  faithful 
in  negotiations  foreign  and  domestick  ;  eminent  for 
piety,  charity,  loyalty,  and  prudence  ;  an  inhabitant 
26  years,  and  a  bountiful  benefactor  to  this  parish." 
Some  distance  north  of  the  site  of  Sir  Paul 
Pindar's  house,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  way, 
there  was,  not  very  long  ago,  a  group  of  four  houses, 
numbered  81  to  85  Bishopsgate  Street  Without, 
which,  although  vulgarised  and  defaced,  were 
evidently  very  old.  They  resembled  each  other 
more  or  less,  and  No.  82  still  remains.  It  is  of 
wood,  the  gabled  top  story  standing  slightly  back, 
and  having  a  door  in  front  which  opens  on  to  a 
kind  of  gallery,  formed  by  the  space  thus  gained 
and  by  a  projecting  cornice.  The  Rev.  Thomas 
Hugo,  who  examined  the  houses  in  Bishopsgate 
Street  over  forty  years  ago,  was  told  that  within 
the  memory  of  man  the  date  1590  had  been 
visible  on  one  of  the  group.  Their  wooden  fronts, 
however,  have  markings  in  imitation  of  stone- 
work, called  technically  wooden  rustications,  which 
seem  to  suggest  a  later  date.  Similar  work  was 
to  be  seen  on  the  wooden  houses  in  Fore  Street 
at  the  entrance  to  St.  Giles,  Cripplegate,  which 
with  the  tower  of  that  church  have  given  us  a 
picturesque  subject  for  an  illustration.      Beneath 


one  of  these  houses  is  shown  the  old  entrance 
to  the  churchyard,  the  stones  of  which  are  at 
present  lying  on  the  ground,  but  will,  it  is  said, 
be  re-erected.  The  spandrels  of  the  round-headed 
arch  are,  or  were,  filled  in  with  carvings  of  an  hour- 
glass, a  scythe,  a  death's  head,  and  other  emblems 
of  mortality.  Above  were  the  names  of  the 
churchwardens  at  the  time  of  its  erection,  and  the 
date  1660.  This  gate  was  built  in  the  previous 
year  out  of  the  fines  received  for  the  renewal 
of  the  leases  of  the  parish  property.  The  four 
wooden  shops,  with  their  projecting  windows,  were 
rather  older,  being  finished  in  1656.  They  were 
built  by  the  same  authorities  on  a  strip  of  the 
burial  ground  from  a  similar  fund,  the  rents  to  be 
applied  to  charitable  purposes  in  the  parish.  Next 
to  these  shops  was  the  *'  Quest  House,"  a  small 
part  of  which  is  shown  near  the  left  side  of  our 
drawing.  Here  the  "  Inquest  Jury "  used  to  sit. 
This  was  a  body  of  men  whose  chief  duties  were 
to  look  after  the  internal  affairs  of  the  Ward. 
They  were  elected  on  St.  Thomas's  Day  in  the 
same  manner  as  the  Common  Councilmen,  their 
numbers  varying  from  sixteen  to  twenty.  This 
jury,  after  gradually  losing  most  of  its  powers,  was 
abolished  about  the  year  1857.     The  curious  plate 


belonging  to  it  passed  soon  afterwards  into  the 
hands  of  the  vestry,  which  in  later  years  held  its 
meetings  here.  The  actual  building,  of  brick 
stuccoed,  with  "  Gothic "  windows  and  doorways, 
was  no  older  than  the  year  1811.  There  had, 
however,  been  a  previous  Quest  House  on  the 
same  site,  thought  by  Mr.  Malcolm  to  have  been 
''nearly  as  ancient  as  Edward  the  Sixth's  time." 
Like  its  successor,  it  was  built  against  part  of  the 
north  side  of  the  church,  blocking  out  the  light. 
In  1900  the  leases  of  the  four  shops  ran  out, 
and  the  City  Corporation  having  purchased  the 
property,  both  shops  and  Quest  House  were  shortly 
afterwards  destroyed.  Thus  one  of  the  quaintest 
views  in  old  London  ceased  to  be. 

The  Church  of  St.  Giles,  Cripplegate,  is  believed 
to  have  been  founded  as  early  as  the  end  of  the 
eleventh  century,  to  supply  the  needs  of  those 
who  had  lately  settled  in  the  then  new  suburb  just 
without  the  city  wall,  a  bastion  of  which  is  still 
to  be  seen  in  the  disused  burial  ground  at  the  back. 
The  church  was  rebuilt  late  in  the  fourteenth 
century,  again  to  a  great  extent  after  a  fire  in 
1545,  and  in  the  Cripplegate  fire  of  November 
1897  it  had  a  very  narrow  escape,  several  holes 
being  burnt  in  the  roof.     The  destruction  of  the 


Quest  House  exposed  to  view  a  staircase-turret,  a 
doorway,  and  various  north  windows  of  the  church 
in  a  dilapidated  condition ;  they  have  now  been 
"  restored."  The  upper  part  of  the  tower,  as  shown 
in  our  illustration,  was  built  of  brick  in  1683-84, 
and  surmounted  by  a  cupola.  With  no  pretence  of 
being  Gothic,  it  has,  to  the  writer's  eyes  at  least, 
a  very  picturesque  effect ;  a  proposal  made  in 
1890-91  to  rebuild  it  in  Kentish  ragstone  was 
fortunately  frustrated.  This  tower  contains  a  fine 
peal  of  twelve  bells ;  a  chiming  machine  con- 
nected with  them  is  said  to  have  been  made  in 
1795  by  George  Harman  of  High  Wycombe,  whose 
regular  trade  was  that  of  a  cooper.  Six  of  the 
bells  have  rhyming  inscriptions,  of  which  the 
following  is  a  fair  example  : — 

Ye  ringers  all  that  prize  your  health  and  happiness. 
Be  sober,  merry,  wise,  and  you'll  the  same  possess. 

The  church  contains  many  interesting  monu- 
ments, none  of  very  great  antiquity ;  the  oldest 
being  that  to  Thomas  Busby,  a  benefactor  of  the 
parish,  who  died  in  1575.  Among  them  is  a  touch- 
ing epitaph  to  Margaret  Lucy,  who  died  in  1634,  a 
descendant  of  Shakespeare's  Sir  Thomas  Lucy  of 
Charlecote.     John  Foxe,  the  martyrologist,  some- 



time  vicar  of  this  parish,  and  John  Speed,  carto- 
grapher and  historian,  are  also  here  commemorated. 
John  Milton  and  his  father  were  buried  in  the  same 
grave  "  in  the  upper  end  of  the  chancel  at  the  right 
hand."  Its  place  is  indicated  by  a  stone  thus  in- 
scribed : — "  Near  this  spot  was  buried  John  Milton, 
author  of  Paradise  Lost  Born  1608,  died  1674." 
The  grave  was  disturbed  in  1790.  Shortly  after- 
wards Samuel  Whitbread,  the  brewer,  put  up  a 
bust  and  tablet  to  Milton's  memory,  the  work  of 
the  elder  Bacon.  In  1862  these  were  placed  on  a 
lofty  monument  which  was  then  erected  in  the 
south  aisle  to  the  west  of  the  monument  of  Speed. 
Oliver  Cromwell  was  married  in  this  church  to 
Elizabeth  Bourchier,  August  22,  1620.  The 
registers  also  contain  entries  relating  to  the 
Egertons,  Earls  of  Bridgewater,  the  site  of  whose 
house  is  marked  by  Bridgewater  Square,  which  is 
in  this  parish.  It  was  before  the  head  of  this 
family  at  Ludlow  Castle,  his  official  residence  as 
President  of  the  Council  of  Wales,  that  Milton's 
masque  of  Comus  was  performed  in  1634,  Lawes 
being  composer  of  the  music.  A  statue  of  the 
poet  was  placed  in  November  on  a  conspicuous  site 
near  the  church,  the  ground  having  been  bought 
back  from  the  City  Corporation. 


We  will  now  retrace  our  steps  to  the  district 
through  which  Bishopsgate  Street  passes,  where, 
from  the  fact  that  the  Great  Fire  did  not  in  this 
direction  extend  so  far  north,  many  picturesque 
houses  long  lingered.  Among  the  rest,  fifty  years 
ago,  like  the  Borough  High  Street,  it  was  lined 
with  quaint  old  inns,  of  which  the  Bull,  the  Four 
Swans,  and  the  Green  Dragon  were  the  most  con- 
spicuous. The  remains  of  a  mansion  far  older  and 
more  famous  than  that  of  Sir  Paul  Pindar  are 
close  to  this  street  on  the  east  side,  being  part 
of  Crosby  Place,  built  by  Sir  John  Crosby,  who 
obtained  from  the  adjoining  convent  of  St.  Helen  a 
lease  of  the  ground  in  1466.  The  portions  remain- 
ing are  the  great  hall,  with  a  fine  open  timber  roof 
and  a  beautiful  oriel  window,  a  room  on  the  ground 
floor  now  called  the  "throne  room,"  and  a  "with- 
drawing "or  "  council  room  "  above,  having  a  richly- 
carved  ceiling.  There  are  also  considerable  brick 
cellars.  These  valuable  relics  are  in  no  danger  of 
destruction  ;  they  have  been  drawn  repeatedly,  and 
are  so  smartened  up  to  meet  the  requirements  of  the 
purpose  to  which  they  are  now  put,  namely,  that 
of  a  modern  restaurant,  that  they  do  not  at  present 
lend  themselves  readily  to  illustration.  Here, 
however,   we  may  comfortably  refresh  the  inner 


man  after  a  pilgrimage  among  the  time-honoured 
shrines  in  the  neighbourhood,  and  while  doing  so 
we  may  conjure  up  past  scenes  before  our  mental 
vision.  The  history  of  the  place  is  of  unique 
interest.  Sir  John  Crosby,  a  famous  citizen,  served 
the  office  of  Sheriff  in  1470,  and  early  in  the  follow- 
ing year,  when  the  bastard  Falconbridge  assaulted 
the  city,  he  distinguished  himself  by  his  valour  in 
helping  to  repel  the  attack.  When  Edward  IV. 
returned  to  London,  in  May  1471,  Crosby  accom- 
panied the  Mayor  and  other  prominent  men  who 
met  the  King  between  Shoreditch  and  Islington, 
and  here  he  received  the  honour  of  knighthood. 
In  the  two  following  years  he  was  employed  by 
Edward  in  confidential  missions,  but  did  not  long 
survive  to  enjoy  his  prosperity  and  his  sumptuous 
mansion.  Dying  in  1475,  he  was  buried  in  the 
neighbouring  church  of  St.  Helen,  where  between 
the  chancel  and  the  chapel  of  the  Holy  Ghost  is 
an  altar  tomb,  having  on  it  fine  recumbent  figures 
of  him  and  of  Agnes,  his  first  wife.  Round  his 
neck  is  a  collar  decorated  with  roses  and  suns 
alternating — the  latter  a  badge  used  by  Edward 
IV.  after  the  victory  of  Mortimer's  Cross,  when  a 
parhelion  or  mock  sun  made  its  appearance. 

In     1483     Crosby     Place    was     occupied     by 


Richard  III.  when  Protector,  probably  as  a  tenant 
of  Crosby's  executors,  and  it  is  twice  mentioned  in 
Shakespeare's  Play  of  Richard  III,     Shakespeare 
himself  may  have  lived  close  by  in  1598,  shifting 
his  quarters  from  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Bank- 
side  ;  at  least  some  one  of  his  name  was  a  resident 
in  St.  Helen's  parish,  being  assessed  by  the  col- 
lectors of  a  subsidy,  in  the  sum  of  13s.  4d.,  upon 
goods  valued  at  £5,  but  it  is  not  certain  that  this 
was  the  dramatist.     Among  inmates  of  the  house, 
Sir    Thomas    More    was    there    as    owner    about 
1518  ;  he  afterwards  sold  the  property  to  his  friend 
Antonio  Bonvici  or  Bonvisi,  merchant  of  Lucca, 
who   at   one   time   leased    it    to   the   husband   of 
Margaret   Roper,  More's  favourite  daughter.     In 
1566  the  mansion  was  bought  by  Alderman  William 
Bond,  a  famous  "  merchant  adventurer,"  who  added 
to  it  a  lofty  turret.     About  this  time,  and  later, 
foreign  ambassadors  were  occasionally  lodged  here  ; 
and  here,  in  1594,    Sir  John  Spencer,  a  man  of 
great  wealth,  kept  his  mayoralty,  having  bought 
the  property,  made  great  reparation,  and  added  "  a 
most  large  warehouse  to  the  east."    He  also  bought 
Canonbury    Place,    Islington,    once   the   manorial 
house  of  the  prior  and  convent  of  St.  Bartholomew 
in  Smithfield,  and  probably  built  the  tower  of  it, 


which  is  still  standing.  Like  Crosby  and  Bond, 
he  was  buried  in  St.  Helen's  Church,  where,  against 
the  wall  to  the  west  of  the  south  porch,  his  splendid 
monument  is  now  placed.  It  has  recumbent  figures 
of  Sir  John  and  his  wife,  and  at  their  feet  is  the 
figure  of  their  daughter  kneeling.  She  married 
Lord  Compton,  later  first  Earl  of  Northampton, 
having,  as  the  story  goes,  eloped  from  Canonbury 
by  his  contrivance  in  a  baker's  basket.  That  she 
was  quite  able  to  hold  her  own  is  proved  by  a 
letter,  still  extant,  which  was  written  by  her,  some 
years  after  Sir  John's  death,  to  her  ''Lord  and 
Master."  She  therein  tells  him  what  she  personally 
needed  in  the  way  of  money,  beginning  with  £1600 
a  year  paid  quarterly,  £600  a  year  for  charity, 
£8000  for  jewels,  in  addition  to  £6000,  and  there 
is  a  further  list  of  many  costly  requirements. 

Besides  those  mentioned  above,  various  other 
distinguished  people  have  been  associated  with 
Crosby  Place,  the  southern  part  of  which  is  said 
to  have  been  injured  by  the  Great  Fire,  and  was 
almost  destroyed  by  another  six  years  afterwards, 
the  hall,  however,  luckily  escaping.  It  was  after 
this  that  the  present  Crosby  Square  came  into 
existence.  The  subsequent  vicissitudes  of  the  hall 
are  well  known,  and  the  successful  efforts  made 


between  1831  and  1836  to  preserve  it.  In  the 
latter  year  it  was  re -opened  ;  the  present  front 
facing  Bishopsgate  Street  forms  no  part  of  the 
original  building.  Before  quitting  the  subject  it 
may  be  remarked  that  Crosby  Place  must  have 
stood  on  the  site  of  a  Roman  villa,  for  here  two 
lloman  tesselated  pavements  were  found  in  1871 
and  1873.  The  house,  with  its  offices  and  gardens, 
covered  a  good  deal  of  ground. 

To  what  extent  Crosby  Place  was  damaged 
by  the  successive  fires  of  the  latter  half  of  the 
seventeenth  century  is  not  exactly  known,  but 
it  is  an  interesting  fact  that  at  No.  25  Bishops- 
gate  Street  Within,  a  few  yards  south  of  the 
entrance  leading  to  Crosby  Square,  a  house  of 
earlier  date  was  standing  until  1892-93  which  had 
been  known  for  years  as  Crosby  Hall  Chambers. 
The  front  towards  the  street  had  no  marks  of 
antiquity  except  two  festoons  of  flowers,  much 
blocked  up  by  paint,  between  the  first  floor 
windows.  The  north  side  appeared  to  be  externally 
more  or  less  in  its  original  state.  Its  base  was 
composed  of  rustic  work,  the  wall  being  relieved 
by  pilasters.  There  was  also  a  room  on  the  first 
floor  looking  out  on  this  passage,  whieh  had  a 
fragment  of  decorative  plaster  work,  and  a  beautiful 


carved  chimney-piece,  dated  1633,  of  which  a 
cast  is  now  at  the  South  Kensington  Museum. 
The  original  is  incorporated  in  the  building  now 
occupying  the  site  of  Crosby  Hall  Chambers.  In 
the  spring  of  1899  the  demolition  of  a  house  in 
Bishopsgate  Street  immediately  to  the  south  of 
the  modern  frontage  of  Crosby  Hall,  displayed  to 
view  two  Gothic  arches,  which  the  writer  did  not 
have  an  opportunity  of  inspecting.  Reference  to 
them  may  be  found  in  Notes  and  Queries  for  May 
13  and  for  June  3  of  that  year  ;  they  were  probably 
connected  with  the  crypt  of  the  great  mansion. 

In  Crosby  Square,  on  the  south  side,  two  or 
three  handsome  old  houses  remain.  One  of  them  has 
been  recased  with  brick,  but  has  retained  its  carved 
doorway.  Another  has  a  fine  staircase,  but  its  chief 
distinction  is  a  charming  garden  at  the  back,  with 
its  fig-trees,  its  thorns,  and  pretty  fountain — a 
veritable  oasis  in  this  wilderness  of  bricks  and 
mortar.  Fortunately  it  is  in  the  hands  of  those 
who  appreciate  it ;  may  it  long  be  a  source  of 
pleasure  and  refreshment  to  them.  Dr.  Nathan 
Adler,  chief  rabbi,  lived  here  for  some  years,  from 
1847  onwards  :  the  garden  and  basin  are  marked 
distinctly  in  Strype's  map  of  1720. 

From  Crosby  Square  a  passage  leads  to  Great 


St.  Helen's,  which  some  years  ago  was  remarkably 
picturesque.  At  a  corner,  opposite  the  pretty 
south  porch  of  the  church,  by  some  attributed  to 
Inigo  Jones,  which  has  on  it  the  date  1633,  stood 
a  quaint  old  house  constructed  of  wood  and  plaster, 
with  projecting  upper  stories  and  massive  timber- 
ing, which  had  been  in  existence  long  before  the 
Great  Fire,  and  at  the  time  of  our  sketch  was 
probably,  except  Crosby  Hall,  the  oldest  domestic 
building  in  the  City ;  the  inside,  however,  had 
been  modernised.  Tradition  boldly  asserts  that 
Anne  Boleyn's  father.  Sir  Thomas,  afterwards 
Viscount  Rochford  and  Earl  of  Wiltshire,  lived 
here.  It  is  an  undoubted  fact  that  a  kinsman 
of  his  name  was  intimately  associated  with  St. 
Helen's,  for  "on  the  24th  of  December,  26 
Henry  VIII.,  1534,  the  Prioress  and  Convent 
appointed  Sir  William  Bolleyne,  Knt.,  to  be 
steward  of  their  lands  and  tenements  in  London 
and  elsewhere,  the  duties  to  be  performed  either 
by  himself  or  a  sufficient  deputy  during  the  life 
of  the  said  James,  at  a  stipend  of  forty  shillings 
a  year  payable  at  Christmas.  If  in  arrear  for  six 
weeks  the  said  James  might  enter  and  distrain." 
This  was  most  likely  Sir  Thomas  Boleyn's  elder 
brother.      The   house,    No.    10,   had    been    much 


shaken  by  the  removal  of  Nos.  8  and  9  adjoining. 
It  was  propped  up  for  some  time,  and  destroyed 
in  the  course  of  1894. 

The  house  alluded  to  in  the  last  paragraph,  and 
known  latterly  as  Nos.  8  and  9  Great  St.  Helen's, 
although  less  ancient  than  No.  10,  deserves  some- 
thing more  than  a  passing  allusion.  It  is  on  the 
south  side  of  that  part  of  Great  St.  Helen's  which 
faces  the  church  and  churchyard,  both  Great  St. 
Helen's  and  St.  Helen's  Place  having  been  once  in- 
cluded in  the  precinct  of  the  Convent  of  St.  Helen. 
A  parish  church  existed  here  before  the  founda- 
tion of  the  Priory  in  the  early  thirteenth  century. 
When  that  event  took  place,  a  nun's  choir  was 
built  alongside  of  the  existing  nave.  The  whole 
church  happily  escaped  the  Great  Fire,  and  although 
of  late  years  it  has  been  terribly  over-restored,  it 
is  still  full  of  interest  and  crowded  with  ancient 
monuments.  To  return  to  Nos.  8  and  9.  This 
mansion,  latterly  divided  into  two,  and  destroyed 
in  the  early  part  of  1892,  was  of  brick,  having 
engaged  pilasters,  which  were  furnished  with  stone 
bases  and  capitals.  They  also  had  bands,  on  two 
of  which  appeared  in  relief  the  initials  ^^,  and  the 
date  1646.  The  projecting  sills  or  cornices  and 
the  deep  keystones  on  the  first-floor  windows  gave 


a  striking  appearance  to  the  fabric.  It  was  also 
memorable  as  an  early  specimen  of  brickwork  in 
London,  and  as  dating  from  a  period  before  the 
formal  conclusion  of  the  Civil  War,  when  building 
operations  were  almost  at  a  standstill.  No.  9  had 
in  a  room  on  the  first  floor  a  wooden  seventeenth- 
century  mantelpiece,  behind  which,  on  its  removal, 
were  found  traces  of  an  older  mantelpiece  of 
marble,  and  evidence  of  the  former  existence  of  a 
large  open  fireplace.  The  beautiful  staircase,  or 
portion  of  a  staircase,  might  from  its  style  have 
been  Elizabethan.  A  blocked -up  window,  with 
wooden  transoms  for  casements,  was  also  dis- 
covered ;  so  it  seems  likely  that  some  years  after 
the  date  of  the  original  building  considerable  altera- 
tions took  place.  The  facade  has  been  attributed 
to  Inigo  Jones,  but  it  had  not  his  classic  symmetry, 
and  looked  like  the  work  of  a  less  instructed  local 
artist.  Besides,  Inigo  Jones,  a  Royalist  and  a 
Roman  Catholic,  was  taken  prisoner  in  October 
1645  at  the  storming  of  Basing  House,  having 
been  there  during  the  siege,  which  had  lasted  since 
August  1643.  He  was  apparently  not  free  to 
return  to  his  profession  until  July  2,  1646,  when, 
after  payment  of  a  heavy  fine,  his  estate,  which  had 
been  sequestrated,  was  restored  to   him,  and  he 


received  pardon  by  an  ordinance  of  the  House  of 
Commons.  It  is  hard  to  believe  that  w^hilst  he 
was  passing  through  such  a  crisis,  or  in  the  few- 
months  succeeding  it,  he  would  have  been  super- 
intending a  work  in  the  Puritan  City.  At  the 
time  of  his  release  the  great  architect  was  seventy- 
four  years  of  age,  and  as  far  as  we  know  he  hardly 
practised  his  profession  afterwards.  The  division 
of  Nos.  8  and  9  Great  St.  Helen's  took  place  in 
the  course  of  the  last  century,  probably  about 
1750,  to  judge  from  the  style  of  the  fanlights  and 
projecting  hoods  to  the  front  doors,  and  from  the 
staircase  of  No.  8,  the  upper  portion  of  which, 
however,  was  much  more  archaic,  and  might  have 
served  as  part  of  the  back  staircase  to  the  original 
building.  We  have  not  been  able  to  give  a  coloured 
illustration  of  this  house,  but  there  is  an  archi- 
tectural drawing  of  it  in  our  book  on  London 
signs  and  inscriptions. 

The  initials  have  generally  been  considered 
to  refer  to  Sir  John  Lawrence  and  his  wife, 
but  they  were  really  those  of  his  uncle  and 
aunt,  Adam  and  Judith  Lawrence,  who  were 
members  of  the  Dutch  congregation  of  Austin 
Friars.  From  Adam,  Sir  John  inherited  this 
house    with    other    property    in    1657,    the    year 


that  he  was  elected  alderman  of  Queenhithe 
Ward.  He  shortly  afterwards  served  the  office 
of  Sheriff,  and  on  June  16,  1660,  he  was  knighted 
by  Charles  II.  when  that  monarch,  accompanied 
by  his  brothers,  the  Dukes  of  York  and  Gloucester, 
and  some  of  the  nobility,  were  entertained  at  supper 
by  the  Lord  Mayor,  Sir  Thomas  AUeyne.  In 
1664  he  was  elected  Lord  Mayor,  and  Evelyn 
speaks  of  a  "  most  magnificent  triumph  by  water 
and  land  "  on  that  occasion.  Evelyn  also  attended 
the  Lord  Mayor's  banquet,  when  he  dined  at  the 
upper  table  with  various  great  personages,  and 
*'  the  cheer  was  not  to  be  imagined  for  the  plenty 
and  rarity,  with  an  infinite  number  of  persons  at 
the  table  in  that  ample  hall."  Sir  John  behaved 
very  well  during  the  time  of  the  Great  Plague. 
He  "  enforced  the  wisest  regulations  then  known," 
and  freely  expended  his  private  fortune  in  support 
of  those  who  were  ill  and  impoverished  until  sub- 
scriptions from  elsewhere  could  be  obtained.  Dr. 
Erasmus  Darwin,  in  his  Loves  of  the  Plants,  devotes 
a  few  lines  to  "  London's  generous  Mayor." 

In  1662  apparently  Lawrence  had  built  a  new 
house  for  himself  also  in  Great  St.  Helen's,  in 
which  he  kept  his  mayoralty ;  an  illustration  of 
it  appeared  in  1796,  forming  the  frontispiece   to 


vol.  xxix.  of  the  European  Magazine,  That 
undoubted  residence  of  his  is  marked  by  name  in 
the  map  of  Bishopsgate  Street  Ward  accompanying 
Strype's  edition  of  Stow's  Survey,  where  a  slight 
sketch  of  it  is  given.  The  Jewish  synagogue  is 
rather  west  of  the  site.  It  is  curious  that  the 
initials  on  Nos.  8  and  9  Great  St.  Helen  s  besides 
suiting  the  uncle  Adam  and  his  wife  were  also 
applicable  to  Sir  John  and  Lady  Lawrence,  whose 
Christian  name  was  Abigail.  There  is  a  monument 
to  this  latter  lady  in  St.  Helen's  Church,  where  it 
is  recorded  that  she  was  "  the  tender  mother  of  ten 
children.  The  nine  first,  being  all  daughters,  she 
suckled  at  her  own  breasts ;  they  all  lived  to  be  of 
age.  Her  last,  a  son,  died  an  infant.  She  lived 
a  married  wife  39  years,  23  whereof  she  was  an 
exemplary  matron  of  this  Cittie,  dying  in  the  59th 
year  of  her  age."  As  she  died  in  1681,  it  would 
appear  that  she  and  her  husband  came  to  reside  in 
the  parish  after  Adam's  death.  In  St.  Helen's 
Church  is  a  carved  wooden  stand  for  the  reception 
of  the  Lord  Mayor's  sword  on  the  occasion  of  his 
ceremonial  visits  there.  This  has  on  it  the  arms 
of  Lawrence,  namely  argent,  a  cross  raguly  gules, 
a  canton  ermine,  and  is  the  oldest  sword-stand  in 
the  City.     Faulkner  in  his  History  of  Chelsea,  and 


tlie  Rev.  J.  E.  Cax,  D.D.,  in  his  Annals  of  St, 
Helens,  deceived  no  doubt  by  the  fact  that  their 
arms  were  identical,  have  assumed  that  Sir  John 
Lawrence  belonged  to  the  Lawrences  who  acquired 
the  Manor  House  at  Chelsea  about  the  year  1590, 
and  with  it,  in  all  likelihood,  the  north  chapel  in 
the  old  parish  church,  which  is  still  called  after 
them  but  was  built  long  before  their  time,  perhaps 
towards  the  beginning  of  the  fourteenth  century. 
The  Lord  Mayor,  as  we  have  implied,  was  of 
Dutch  or  Flemish  ancestry.  The  name  had  been 
spelt  in  various  ways,  as  Laurens,  Laureijns, 
Laurents,  etc.,  until,  when  its  possessors  became 
thoroughly  anglicised,  it  took  the  English  form. 

About  the  year  1860  almost  all  the  houses  in 
Great  St.  Helen's  were  of  considerable  age,  but 
little  that  is  of  interest  now  remains.  On  the  south 
side  No.  2  has  a  pretty  doorway,  which  appears  to 
date  from  the  early  part  of  the  eighteenth  century, 
and  there  is  another  (No.  7)  with  a  Georgian  stair- 
case. There  was  a  right-of-way  through  here  for 
the  public  from  very  early  times ;  for  Dugdale 
tells  us  that  in  the  Hundred  Roll  of  the  third  year 
of  Edward  I.  several  entries  occur  relating  to  an 
attempt  which  the  nuns  made  to  stop  up  the  lane 
or  passage  through  the  court  of  their  priory  from 


Bishopsgate  Street  to  St.  Mary  Axe.  The  view 
which  is  here  given  represents  the  entrance  to 
Bishopsgate  Street  from  Great  St.  Helen's  in  1890. 
On  the  left  is  a  modern  portion  of  Crosby  Hall, 
and  over  the  passage  were  gabled  houses  older  than 
the  time  of  the  Great  Fire.  The  structure  on 
spectator's  right,  although  unpretentious,  had  an  air 
of  quaintness,  with  its  iron  railings  and  broad  white 
window  frames  shining  in  the  sun.  The  inscrip- 
tion on  a  tablet  above  the  door  of  this  building  ran 
as  follows: — "These  alms-houses  were  founded 
by  Sir  Andrew  Judd,  Kt.,  Citizen  and  Skinner,  and 
Lord  Mayor  of  London,  Anno  Dom.  1551.  For 
six  poor  men  of  y^  said  Company.  Rebuilt  by  y^ 
said  Company  Anno  Dom.  1729."  The  original 
almshouses  are  supposed  to  have  been  further 

Sir  Andrew  Judd  was  a  native  of  Tunbridge 
in  Kent,  and  made  a  large  fortune  as  a  merchant, 
chiefly,  it  is  said,  by  dealing  in  furs.  He  kept  his 
mayoralty  in  a  "  fair  house  "  in  Bishopsgate  Street, 
which  had  been  before  used  for  a  similar  purpose 
by  another  great  city  magnate.  Sir  William  Holies. 
It  seems  to  be  shown  by  her  will,  that  in  building  the 
almshouses  Sir  Andrew  Judd  only  acted  as  executor 
to  his  cousin  Elizabeth,   widow  of  Sir  William. 



Stow,  however,  does  not  mention  her  name  in 
connection  with  the  charity,  which  was  augmented 
by  Judd's  daughter,  Alice  Smyth,  of  Westenhanger, 
Kent.  Sir  Andrew  also  founded  and  endowed  Tun- 
bridge  Grammar  School.  Like  most  of  the  other 
worthies  we  have  mentioned  in  connection  with 
this  precinct,  he  was  buried  in  St.  Helen's  Church. 
A  quaint  Elizabethan  monument  marks  his  resting- 
place.  The  epitaph  gives  quite  a  little  biography 
of  him,  which  contains  what  a  transatlantic  cousin 
thought  to  be  the  essential  poetic  elements,  for  it 
"  states  all  the  facts  and  rhymes  occasionally." 

Judd's  almshouses  in  Great  St.  Helen's  were 
destroyed  about  1892,  a  scheme  having  been 
matured  by  the  Skinners'  Company  for  amalgamat- 
ing the  funds  with  those  of  other  almshouses 
administered  by  them,  which  stood  on  the  north 
side  of  the  Mile  End  Road.  We  shall  here  take 
the  opportunity  of  saying  a  few  words  about  the 
Skinners'  almshouses,  a  view  of  a  portion  of  them 
being  given  in  this  book.  Over  the  gate  were  the 
arms  of  the  Skinners'  Company  and  two  statuettes 
of  cripples.  There  were  also  two  inscriptions,  one 
setting  forth  that  the  almshouses  were  founded  in 
1688  during  the  mastership  of  Benjamin  Alexander. 
The  other  ran  thus  : — 



The  Gift  of  Mr.  Lewis  Newbury, 

Built  by 

Thomas  Glover,  Esq., 

his  Executor,  committed 

to  the  management  of  the 

Company  of  Skinners, 


The  narrow  frontage  of  these  almshouses  towards 
the  road  did  not  prepare  one  for  the  picturesque 
scene  within.  The  houses,  twelve  in  number,  were 
for  poor  widows.  There  was  a  chapel  and  a  garden  at 
the  farther  end  from  which  our  drawing  was  taken. 
In  1892  the  Skinners'  Company  invited  tenders  for 
the  purchase  of  the  property,  and  about  two  years 
afterwards  these  old  buildings  werie  swept  away. 
Almshouses  have  been  built  outside  London  from 
the  funds  of  this  and  of  the  Judd  foundation. 

Next  to  the  site  of  the  Skinners'  almshouses  on 
the  east,  is  the  famous  Trinity  Hospital,  held  to  have 
been  designed  by  Sir  Christopher  Wren,  and  saved 
from  imminent  destruction  now  some  years  ago, 
while  further  east  are  the  Vintners'  almshouses, 
originally  founded  in  the  Vintry  Ward  in  1357, 
moved  to  Mile  End  in  1676,  and  rebuilt  in  the 
early  part  of  the  nineteenth  century  with  in- 
creased benefits,  under  the  will  of  Benjamin  Kenton, 


Citizen  and  Vintner,  whose  house  is  yet  standing  in 
the  Minories.  There  were  formerly  several  other 
almshouses  in  this  once  rural  neighbourhood, 
where,  as  Gerard  tells  us  in  his  Herbal,  penny- 
royal once  grew  in  great  abundance,  and  whither 
Londoners  used  to  wend  their  way  on  festive 
occasions  for  the  sake  of  fresh  air  and  for  cakes 
and  ale.  The  Drapers'  almshouses  of  the  John 
Pemel  foundation  disappeared  long  ago,  and  those 
founded  by  Bancroft  have  given  place  to  the 
"People's  Palace,"  the  outcome  in  some  sense  of 
Walter  Besant's  ideas  of  social  philanthropy  as 
set  forth  in  All  Sorts  and  Conditions  of  Men, 

Standing  by  the  Skinners'  Almshouse,  and  look- 
ing west  towards  the  Whitechapel  Road,  one  would 
formerly  have  seen  a  little  timber-built  tavern 
with  tiled  roof  called  the  Vine,  which  had  here 
boldly  thrust  itself  on  to  the  open  space  between 
the  wide  pavement  and  the  wider  road.  So 
picturesque  was  its  appearance  that  two  views  of 
it  are  here  given.  The  first,  done  many  years  ago, 
represents  it  from  the  west,  in  the  early  morning 
of  May  14,  1887,  the  day  when  her  late  Majesty 
Queen  Victoria,  accompanied  by  Princess  Beatrice 
and  Prince  Henry  of  Battenberg,  drove  in  an 
open  carriage  from  Paddington  to  Mile  End,  and 


opened  in  person  the  great  Central  Hall  of  the 
People's  Palace.  The  streets  were  gaily  decorated 
for  the  occasion,  and  it  will  be  seen  that  the 
proprietor  of  the  Vine  Tavern  invested  in  bunting 
to  an  extent  that  marked  him  out  as  a  thoroughly 
loyal  subject.  At  the  time  represented  in  the 
painting,  the  road,  soon  to  be  thronged  with  a 
joyous  crowd,  was  still  empty,  save  for  the  presence 
of  here  and  there  a  straggler,  who  seemed  in  no 
hurry  for  work  or  play,  but  as  if  anxious  to  begin 
at  once  with  some  slight  liquid  refreshment.  On 
spectator's  right  the  entrance  to  the  Skinners' 
Almshouses  is  visible.  In  the  early  autumn  of 
1903  it  became  known  that  the  old  house  had  been 
condemned  by  the  Borough  Council  of  Stepney. 
Our  second  illustration  was  the  result  of  a  couple 
of  afternoon  visits,  when  the  work  of  demolition 
was  already  begun.  As  the  hour  of  sunset 
approached,  we  were  struck  by  the  crowd  of  foot 
passengers,  male  and  female,  who,  business  for  the 
day  being  finished,  were  wending  their  way  east- 
ward from  Whitechapel. 

The  site  of  the  "  Vine  "  remains  vacant,  and  is 
not  likely  to  be  again  built  upon.  Although  dear 
to  the  artist,  it  was  a  humble  shanty,  and  efforts 
to  find  out  something  of  interest  connected  with 


it  have  been  rather  unsuccessful.  From  its  appear- 
ance it  must  have  been  at  least  as  old  as  the  earlier 
half  of  the  eighteenth  century,  perhaps  much  older, 
and  it  was  built  on  the  waste  ground  at  Mile  End 
which  has  been  absorbed  into  the  thoroughfare, 
thus  long  ago  extended  to  an  abnormal  width. 
The  former  waste  land  at  Mile  End  must  not  be 
confounded  with  Mile  End  (now  Stepney)  Green. 
The  Vine  Tavern  stood  in  front  of  some  houses 
named  in  a  map  of  1799,  "Five  Constable  Row," 
and  is  thereon  distinctly  marked.  It  was  in  the 
Mile  End  Road,  which  is  a  continuation  east  of  the 
Whitechapel  Road ;  Dog  Row  (now  Cambridge 
Road)  from  the  north  joins  and  also  divides  them. 
This  junction  takes  place  a  short  distance  west 
of  the  tavern  site ;  and  here  stood  the  old  turn- 
pike, shown  in  more  than  one  engraving,  and 
abolished  about  the  year  1866. 

Those  who  wend  their  way  along  the  White- 
chapel Road  towards  the  city  will  not  find  much  that 
is  of  interest  artistically,  so  far  at  least  as  the  build- 
ings are  concerned,  until  they  approach  Aldgate. 
One  is  struck  by  two  things,  the  prevalence  of  the 
Jewish  element,  and  the  fact  that  there  is  little 
or  no  sign  of  the  destitution  which  we  are  apt 
to  associate  with  this  part  of  London.      On  the 


contrary,  the  district  looks  prosperous,  and  Mr. 
Charles  Booth's  **  Descriptive  Map  of  East  End 
Poverty,"  compiled  in  1887,  appears  to  bear  this 
out,  all  the  houses  on  each  side  of  the  road  being 
shown  as  occupied  by  those  who  are  well-to-do, 
although  here  and  there  a  very  short  walk  to  north 
or  south  would  take  us  to  scenes  of  extreme 

Aldgate  High  Street  and  Whitechapel,  being 
on  the  highroad  to  Essex,  had  in  former  years, 
like  other  main  thoroughfares  out  of  London, 
several  famous  inns ;  among  others  the  Three 
Nuns,  the  Crown,  the  Blue  Boar,  and  the  Black 
Bull.  Of  these  the  Three  Nuns  is  mentioned  by 
De  Foe  in  his  Journal  of  the  Plague  Year,  and 
was  an  important  coaching  inn.  It  was  rebuilt  in 
1880,  the  Aldgate  Station  of  the  Metropolitan 
Railway  occupies  part  of  the  site.  Hard  by,  at 
25  Aldgate  High  Street,  some  twelve  or  fourteen 
years  ago,  an  old-fashioned  gateway  was  still  to 
to  be  seen,  surmounted  by  a  handsome  piece  of 
iron  work,  which  once  supported  a  lamp.  In  the 
passage  leading  to  the  yard  at  the  back,  one  could 
dimly  discern,  nailed  to  the  wall,  a  painted  board, 
once  the  sign  of  the  Black  Bull  Inn.  Some  part 
of  that  establishment  then  remained,  and  here  in 


the  palmy  days  of  coaching,  just  before  the  advent 
of  railways,  Mrs.  Anne  Nelson,  coach  proprietor, 
had  held  sway.  It  was  said  that  she  could  make 
up  nearly  two  hundred  beds  at  this  hostelry,  and 
she  lodged  and  boarded  about  three  dozen  of  her 
guards  and  coachmen.  Most  of  her  trade  was  to 
Essex  and  Suffolk,  but  she  also  owned  the  Exeter 
coach.  She  must  have  been  landlady  on  the 
memorable  occasion  when  Mr.  Pickwick  arrived 
in  a  cab  after  "  two  mile  o'  danger  at  eightpence," 
and  it  was  through  this  very  archway  that  he  and 
his  companions  were  driven  by  the  elder  Weller 
when  they  started  on  their  adventurous  journey 
to  Ipswich.  The  house  is  now  wholly  destroyed, 
and  the  yard  built  over.  On  the  opposite  side 
of  Aldgate  High  Street,  a  few  seventeenth - 
century  houses  still  survive,  chiefly  butchers'  shops, 
to  remind  us  that  even  in  Strype's  time  (1720) 
they  plied  their  trade  here,  because,  as  he  tells 
us,  this  region  lies  ''  conveniently  for  driving  and 
carrying  cattle  from  Rumford  market."  There  is 
also  an  old  tavern,  with  the  sign  of  the  Hoop  and 
Grapes,  better  known  as  Christopher  Hill's,  with 
handsomely  carved  door-posts  of  the  same  date  as 
the  house. 

A    short    distance    to    the    south,    along    the 


Minories,  close  to  the  little  church  of  Holy 
Trinity,  stood  formerly  one  of  the  oldest  public- 
houses  in  London,  by  name  the  Sieve.  The  sign, 
now  extinct  in  London,  had  been  associated  with 
it  at  any  rate  for  considerably  more  than  two 
hundred  years.  Stow,  the  historian  of  London, 
might  almost  have  seen  it,  and  we  know  that  in 
his  boyhood  he  had  often  fetched  milk  from  a 
neighbouring  farm,  the  site  of  which  is  still  called 
Goodman's  Fields.  Underneath  there  were  crypt- 
like cellars,  the  material  used  in  their  construc- 
tion being  of  the  nature  of  chalk.  It  is  possible 
that  originally  they  had  some  connection  with 
the  adjoining  convent  of  "sorores  minores"  or 
nuns  of  St.  Clare,  for  J.  T.  Smith,  who  in  1797 
sketched  the  remains  of  the  conventual  buildings 
then  laid  bare  by  a  fire,  and  published  the  results 
in  his  Ancient  Topography  of  London,  tells  us 
that  their  walls  were  of  chalk  and  Caen  stone. 
The  parish  of  Holy  Trinity  is  all  included  within 
the  ancient  precincts  of  the  convent,  and  in  the 
early  days  of  the  Reformation  the  gates  were  still 
kept  up.  In  the  parish  records,  under  date  1596, 
there  is  mention  of  the  appointment  of  a  "vitler 
to  the  parish."  He  was  also  to  have  the  custody 
of  the  keys,  and  was   to  close  the  gate  "in  the 


sommer  at  night  at  tenne  of  the  clocke,  and  in  the 
winter  at  nyne,  and  at  noe  other  hour,  except  the 
necessary  and  urgent  occasions  of  the  inhabitants 
of  the  said  parish  doe  require  the  contrarie.'* 
Later  extracts  speak  of  vestry  meetings  at  the 
Sieve ;  for  instance  "  about  agreeing  to  pull  down 
the  churchyard  wall,"  when  matters  were  facilitated 
by  the  expenditure  of  six  shillings  on  refreshment. 
A  seventeenth -century  trade  token  was  issued 
from  this  house,  which  for  many  years  belonged 
to  the  Byng  family,  but  at  length  came  into  the 
hands  of  the  Metropolitan  Railway  Company,  by 
whom  it  was  closed  in  1886,  but  not  entirely 
destroyed  until  1890.  The  writer  made  various 
drawings  of  it,  unfortunately  all  in  monochrome, 
which  are  now  to  be  seen  at  the  Bethnal  Green 

The  parish  of  Holy  Trinity  is  now  annexed  to 
that  of  St.  Botolph,  Aldgate,  and  the  church, 
within  a  few  yards  of  the  site  of  the  old  Sieve,  is 
used  as  a  parish  room.  It  is  a  plain  little  structure, 
but  has  various  interesting  features  and  associa- 
tions, which  it  is  hardly  the  writer's  province  to 
note  in  this  volume.  He  would  mention,  however, 
that  on  this  site  was  the  church  of  the  Minoresses, 

which  survived  until  the  year  1706,  when  it  was 



to  a  great  extent  rebuilt;  but  part  of  the  north 
wall  remains,  and  in  the  early  autumn  of  1904, 
a  fire  having  laid  bare  a  considerable  space  on 
this  side,  exposed  to  view  the  whole  of  the 
masonry,  the  most  interesting  portion  being  a 
pointed  window  near  the  west  end,  which  is  much 
mutilated  but  appears  to  be  of  the  fourteenth  or 
fifteenth  century. 

Retracing  our  steps  up  the  Minories  to  Aldgate 
High  Street,  if  we  turn  to  the  west,  we  shall  still 
find  just  within  the  original  limits  of  the  City, 
that  is  beyond  the  site  of  Aldgate,  the  original 
front  of  another  well-known  coaching  inn — the 
Saracen's  Head.  The  old  yard  remains,  and  on 
the  right  of  the  entrance  the  name  in  1887  was 
still  visible  under  the  paint.  The  carved  pilasters 
to  the  left  must  have  been  the  work  of  an  artist. 
The  back  of  the  inn  was  once  galleried,  and 
coaches  plied  from  here  to  Norwich  as  long  ago 
as  1681. 



"  The  old  merchants — were  a  fine  race.     They  knew  their  position 
and  built  up  to  it." — Disraeli,  Tancred. 

We  find  ourselves  once  more  in  the  City,  and  will 
finish  our  quest  among  the  old  houses,  now  few 
and  far  between.  Already  they  have  almost  dis 
appeared  from  the  main  thoroughfares,  being  found 
in  quiet  nooks  and  corners — relies  of  a  past  age, 
which  seem  to  have  survived  by  escaping  notice 
rather  than  from  any  wish  to  preserve  them.  The 
first  of  these  to  which  we  shall  allude  is,  it  is  true, 
close  to  the  headquarters  of  the  corn  trade ;  but 
having  been  in  its  time  an  important  dwelling, 
it  still  has  a  long  forecourt,  and  remains  somewhat 
isolated.  This  stately  old  red  brick  mansion  stands 
back  some  distance  on  the  west  side  of  Mark 
Lane,  the  entrance  being  through  a  very  hand- 
some doorway  adorned  with  carvings  of  fruit  and 


figures,  which  seems  to  belong  to  the  end  of  the 
seventeenth  century.  The  house  is  four  storied,  with 
engaged  pilasters.  On  the  keys  of  the  windows 
are  what  appear  to  be  heraldic  decorations  in  cut 
brick,  perhaps  the  crest  of  the  first  owner.  Passing 
through  a  passage,  one  finds  at  the  back  another 
handsome  doorway,  while  the  present  main  en- 
trance is  on  the  left,  in  what  must  have  been  an 
early  addition  to  the  main  building.  On  the 
ground  floor  in  the  hall  is  a  leaden  statue  which 
looks  as  if  it  came  out  of  a  garden.  The  principal 
staircase  is  now  here,  the  carved  balusters  of  varied 
pattern,  with  their  supporting  brackets,  being 
excellent  specimens  of  early  eighteenth -century 
woodwork,  and  on  the  landing  is  a  window  with 
a  recessed  seat  charmingly  inlaid. 

This  house,  like  another  we  shall  mention,  has 
been  called  the  "  Spanish  ambassador's  house,"  but 
in  this  case  there  is  no  authority  (except  tradition) 
for  the  title.  A  glance  at  Ogilby  and  Morgan's 
plan  of  1677  makes  another  suggestion  more 
likely.  One  there  sees,  just  on  this  site,  a  court 
marked  "Navy  Office,"  and  possibly  the  business 
of  that  institution  was  carried  on  here  for  a  time, 
but  to  decide  the  matter  further  research  would 
be  necessary. 


Forty  years  ago  there  were  other  fine  old  houses 
in  Mark  Lane,  standing  in  open  courts  and  shaded  by 
trees,  but  all  the  rest  have  been  destroyed  to  make 
room  for  modern  offices.  During  excavations  on 
the  site  of  one  in  1871  a  Roman  tesselated  pave- 
ment was  found,  together  with  fragments  of  Samian 

Mention  of  the  Navy  Office  reminds  us  that, 
as  we  all  know,  its  headquarters  were  for  many 
years  in  Seething  Lane,  hard  by,  and  that  Samuel 
Pepys,  who  was  Clerk  of  the  Acts,  lived  in  a  house 
adjoining  and  belonging  to  it.  Here  he  wrote 
almost  the  whole  of  his  famous  diary,  and  he  was 
finally  laid  to  rest  in  the  church  of  St.  Olave,  Hart 
Street.  In  Seething  Lane  there  is  nothing  now 
that  dates  from  his  time ;  but  Catherine  Court, 
which  extends  from  there  to  Tower  Hill,  was  built 
in  1725,  and  has  or  has  had  handsome  iron  work  at 
the  entrance,  and  other  decorative  features. 

Not  far  off,  one  of  the  best  examples  of  a  weU-to- 
do  citizen's  dwelling  of  the  time  of  Charles  II.  is 
to  be  found  in  that  amphibious  region  between 
Lower  Thames  Street  and  Little  Tower  Street, 
where  it  has  been  used  since  1859  for  the  Bilhngs- 
gate  and  Tower  Ward  school.  It  stands  in  a  quiet 
courtyard  opening  into  Botolph  Lane,  which  runs 


from  Eastcheap  to  Lower  Thames  Street.  A 
second  entrance  is  on  the  east  side  in  Love  Lane. 
The  front  is  plain  but  has  an  air  of  quiet  dignity, 
being  built  of  well-laid  and  unusually  small  bricks 
with  stone  dressings.  It  has  a  projecting  cornice  and 
flat  lead- covered  roof.  The  doorway  is  approached 
by  a  double  flight  of  steps,  beneath  which  an  opening 
has  been  left,  once  used  as  a  dog  kennel,  to  judge 
from  the  little  hollow  for  water  scooped  out  in 
front.  Entering  a  hall,  which  extends  right  through 
the  house  and  is  paved  with  alternate  chequers  of 
black  and  white,  one  sees  in  front  a  massive  staircase 
with  the  date  1670  on  the  plaster  above.  Upstairs 
the  house  has  been  mutilated,  the  greater  part  of 
the  landings  on  the  first  and  second  floors  being 
included  in  the  schoolrooms,  but  fine  chimney- 
pieces  of  various  dates,  well-designed  cornices  and 
plaster-work,  evince  the  taste  of  former  possessors. 
Perhaps  the  most  interesting  part  of  the  house  is  a 
small  room  immediately  to  the  left  of  the  main 
entrance.  It  is  panelled  throughout,  and  painted 
from  ceiling  to  floor  with  strange  designs,  among 
which  one  can  dimly  discern  the  figures  of  Indians, 
a  rhinoceros,  antelopes,  palm  trees,  and  other  signs 
of  tropical  life  as  it  presented  itself  to  the  memory 
or  imagination  of  the  artist.     According  to  some. 


the  history  of  the  tobacco  plant  is  here  depicted, 
but  of  this  I  could  see  no  sign.  The  paintings 
were  in  the  first  instance  brightly  coloured,  the 
prevailing  tone  is  now  a  rich  mahogany,  due  partly 
to  time  and  varnish,  partly  to  the  fact  that  years 
ago  damp  Brazil  nuts  were  stored  in  the  basement, 
which  became  heated  and  the  fumes  forced  them- 
selves into  the  room  above.  Fortunately  we 
know  the  name  of  the  painter  of  this  curious 
series  of  pictures,  one  of  the  panels  being  signed 
"  R.  Robinson,  1696."  Perhaps  this  was  his  master- 
piece for  it  is  the  only  record  of  him  which  has  come 
down  to  us.  The  other  decorations  of  the  room 
are  a  carved  mantel  and  a  panelled  cupboard. 

The  house  is  eloquently  described  in  the  pathetic 
novel  Mitre  Court,  Here  Mr.  Brisco  suffered,  and 
Abigail  Weir  passed  her  innocent  girlhood.  Their 
joys  and  sorrows  are  true — to  human  nature  at 
least ;  truer  I  fear  than  Mrs.  Riddell's  assertion 
that  Sir  Christopher  Wren  was  its  architect  and 
first  inhabitant,  though  the  design  is  not  altogether 
unworthy  of  him.  At  the  time  of  writing,  we 
hear,  alas !  that  it  is  doomed.  Cannot  something 
be  done  to  save  it  from  destruction  ? 

A  short  distance  to  the  north,  on  the  east  side  of 
Lime  Street,  was  formerly  a  superb  old  mansion 


still  standing  in  the  year  1872,  when  the  late  Mr. 
G.  H.  Birch  and  Mr.  R.  Phene  Spiers  made  draw- 
ings and  measurements  of  it,  which  were  afterwards 
published  in  the  form  of  a  monograph.  It  appears 
to  have  been  built  by  Richard  Langton  about  the 
year  1600,  the  site  having  been  occupied  in  the 
fifteenth  century  by  Lord  Scrope  of  Bolton,  and 
bequeathed  in  1501  to  the  Fishmongers'  Company. 
In  1700-1  Sir  Thomas  Abney  was  Lord  Mayor, 
and  there  he  kept  his  mayoralty.  He  was  a  great 
supporter  of  St.  Thomas's  Hospital,  and  will  also 
be  remembered  as  the  friend  and  patron  of  Dr.  Isaac 
Watts.  Mantelpieces  from  thence  are  preserved 
in  the  Guildhall  Museum  and  at  South  Kensington. 
Let  us  now  turn  our  steps  to  the  region  of 
A-Ustin  Friars,  which  still  has,  in  what  is  now  the 
Dutch  Church,  a  famous  relic  of  monastic  times  ; 
and,  although  within  a  few  yards  of  the  Stock 
Exchange,  has  hardly  yet  altogether  succumbed  to 
the  assaults  of  the  modern  builder.  The  most 
interesting  houses,  however,  have  now  been  de- 
stroyed. Early  in  1896  the  house  numbered  10 
ceased  to  be.  It  was  on  the  north  side  of  the 
old  Friars'  Church,  the  date  on  a  rain-pipe  proved 
that  it  had  been  there  at  least  as  early  as  the 
year  1704.     The  porch  was  approached  by  steps  ; 

■.'  x^^.3<3fe'  '?-«§*: 


ascending  these  one  saw  in  front  a  spacious  stair- 
case, so  typical  of  the  period  that  it  is  here  por- 
trayed. This  staircase  was  panelled  throughout, 
and  was  especially  noticeable  from  its  ceiling, 
which  was  painted  on  plaster  with  allegorical 
figures  in  the  style  of  Sir  James  Thornhill.  The 
house  No.  11  formed  part  of  the  same  block  of 
buildings.  While  these  were  in  process  of  destruc- 
tion a  Gothic  arch  was  exposed  to  view,  the  upper 
part  of  which  had  been  in  a  room  on  the  ground 
floor  of  No.  10,  incorporated  in  the  east  wall  of  the 
house.  From  the  character  of  the  mouldings  it 
was  held  to  date  from  the  fifteenth  century,  having 
no  doubt  belonged  to  the  cloisters  of  the  Augustine 
Friars.  Other  mediaeval  remains  were  found,  and 
a  paper  on  the  subject  was  read  before  the  London 
and  Middlesex  Archaeological  Society. 

Another  house,  which  made  more  stir  at  the 
time  of  its  destruction,  was  No.  21  Austin  Friars, 
at  the  north-west  corner  of  the  precinct.  It  had 
been  built  in  the  latter  part  of  the  seventeenth 
century,  and  in  the  year  1705  came  into  the  hands 
of  Herman  Olmius,  merchant,  whose  name  occurs 
in  the  first  London  directory,  namely  that  for 
1677,  where  he  is  described  as  "of  Bishopsgate- 
without.    Angel     Alley."       Descended    from    an 



ancient  family  of  Arlon  in  the  Duchy  of  Luxem- 
bourg, he  was  naturalised,  and  having  made  a  large 
fortune  died  in  1718.  His  will  showed  that  he 
was  a  member  not  of  the  Dutch  congregation  in 
Austin  Friars,  but  of  the  French  Church  in 
Threadneedle  Street,  to  which  he  left  £150  for  the 
benefit  of  the  poor.  His  eldest  son  died  Deputy- 
Governor  of  the  Bank  of  England,  and  his  grand- 
son, who  for  many  years  represented  Colchester  in 
the  House  of  Commons,  was  made  an  Irish  peer 
as  Lord  Waltham,  but  the  title  died  out  in  the 
next  generation.  The  family  possessed  much  land 
in  Essex,  and  had  a  famous  country  seat  at  Bore- 
ham,  now  used  as  a  convent.  Herman  Olmius 
had  left  the  Austin  Friars  property  to  the  children 
of  his  younger  daughter,  Margaret,  married  to 
Adrian  Lernoult,  who  predeceased  him.  In  1783 
Hughes  Minet  came  to  live  here,  and  in  1802  he 
bought  a  share  of  the  house  from  descendants  of 
Margaret  Lernoult.  He  was  of  Huguenot  ancestry, 
and  his  family  had  long  carried  on  a  prosper- 
ous business  at  Dover.  The  Minets  occupied 
No.  21  for  many  years ;  in  1838  Messrs.  Thomas, 
Son,  and  Lefevre  were  established  here,  the  last 
named  being  a  brother  of  Lord  Eversley.  The 
final  owner  was  Mr.  John  Fleming,  through  whose 


kindness  I  had  the  privilege  of  exploring  the  whole 
property  on  almost  the  last  day  that  it  remained 
intact.  In  truth  the  house  itself  was  by  no  means 
a  striking  piece  of  architecture ;  the  only  decora- 
tion externally  was  a  carved  hood  to  the  doorway 
forming  the  chief  entrance  from  Austin  Friars. 
But  having  been  from  the  beginning  practically 
unchanged,  there  were  points  about  it  worthy  of 
record.  The  counting-house  on  the  ground  floor 
had  a  Purbeck  marble  mantelpiece,  on  the  upper 
moulding  of  which  appeared  in  white  marble  the 
Olmius  arms  with  very  elaborate  quarterings, 
representing  the  foreign  families  of  Gerverdine, 
Cappre,  Drigue,  and  Reynstein.  Mounting  the 
broad  staircase  which,  like  that  at  No.  10,  had 
carved  and  twisted  balusters,  one  came  upon  the 
dining-room  and  drawing-room  on  the  first  floor ; 
the  former  looked  out  on  what  had  once  been  the 
pleasant  and  ample  garden  of  the  Drapers'  Com- 
pany. Retracing  our  steps  to  the  hall  we  found 
flanking  a  passage  on  the  side  opposite  to  the 
counting-house  a  lofty  kitchen  still  furnished  with 
smoke-jack,  racks,  and  iron  cauldron-holders,  and 
next  to  the  range  an  oven  lined  with  blue  and 
white  tiles,  perhaps  a  legacy  of  Herman  Olmius. 
Through  a  passage  we  passed  to  the  outer  offices. 


a  brewery,  washhouse,  coachhouse,  and  stables ; 
from  these  again  there  was  access  by  a  side  entrance 
into  the  garden — a  quiet  spot  some  half-acre  in 
extent,  which  no  doubt  had  originally  formed  part 
of  the  Friars'  grounds.  It  was  connected  by  steps 
with  a  narrow  terrace  running  along  the  back  of 
the  house.  Here,  in  the  summer  of  1888,  fig-trees 
were  still  flourishing  while  the  work  of  destruction 
had  already  begun. 

The  boundary  at  the  end  of  this  garden  was 
formed  by  another  very  interesting  house.  No.  23 
Great  Winchester  Street,  improved  out  of  exist- 
ence in  the  year  1890.  It  was  approached  through 
a  paved  yard  with  a  lodge  on  each  side  of  the 
entrance,  its  chief  external  characteristics  being  a 
somewhat  high-pitched  roof  and  wings  projecting 
forward.  Inside,  the  chief  reception-room  was 
finely  proportioned,  and  the  staircase  had  pleasant 
architectural  features.  At  the  Dissolution  the 
house  and  grounds  of  the  Augustine  Friars  had 
been  bestowed  by  Henry  VIII.  (for  a  consideration 
no  doubt)  on  William  Paulet,  first  Marquis  of 
Winchester,  who  there  built  his  town  residence, 
traces  of  which  existed  as  late  as  the  year  1844 ; 
after  this  mansion  Winchester  Street  was  named. 
From  a  date  carved  on  a  grotesque  bracket,  formerly 


to  be  seen  at  the  north-east  corner,  it  appears  that 
the  street  was  constructed,  partly  at  least,  in  the 
year  1656,  during  the  government  of  Cromwell. 
Strype  says  that  here  was  "  a  great  messuage  called 
the  Spanish  Ambassador's  House,  of  late  inhabited 
by  Sir  James  Houblon,  Knight  and  Alderman,  and 
other  fair  houses."  Even  down  to  our  time  it  was 
a  remarkably  picturesque  specimen  of  an  old 
London  street.  Now  nothing  but  the  name  is  left 
to  mark  its  connection  with  antiquity. 

Some  little  distance  to  the  west  of  the  district 
we  have  just  been  exploring,  at  No.  4  Coleman 
Street,  near  its  junction  with  London  Wall,  a  house 
was  standing  not  many  years  ago  which,  like  houses 
innumerable,  was  reputed  to  have  been  a  residence 
of  OHver  Cromwell.  At  first  sight  it  had  the 
appearance  of  dating  from  the  earlier  part  of  the 
eighteenth  century.  There  was  in  it  a  good 
eighteenth-century  staircase  with  a  skylight  above, 
and  one  of  the  rooms  had  a  handsome  mantelpiece, 
also  apparently  Georgian.  Another  room  on  the 
first  floor  was  of  more  interest  and  importance. 
Its  panelling  was  of  cedar,  and  the  carved  chimney- 
piece  was  distinctly  Jacobean  in  character.  The 
house,  therefore,  was  much  older  than  its  general 
character  would  have  led  one  to  suppose,  or  else 


it  had  been  rebuilt  early  in  the  eighteenth  century, 
the  chimney-piece  and  panelling  being  insertions 
from  an  older  building.  It  should  be  added  that 
the  north  end  of  Coleman  Street  is  known  to  have 
escaped  the  Great  Fire.  In  1891-92  "the  cedar 
room  "  was  used  as  an  office  by  Mr.  H.  S.  Foster, 
then  Sheriff  of  London.  In  1896  the  house  was 
pulled  down  by  Messrs.  Colls  and  Son,  whose  offices 
adjoined,  and  in  clearing  away  the  foundations  the 
workmen  came  upon  three  ancient  wells — two  of 
them  went  down  twenty  feet  below  the  pavement 
level.  The  following  is  quoted  from  an  illustrated 
article  in  the  City  Press  for  June  6,  1896  :— "  The 
construction  of  these  wells  or  elongated  water-butts 
was  simplicity  itself.  Tubs  or  casks  bound  with 
wooden  hoops  were  sunk  into  the  ground  and 
banked  up  with  puddled  clay  to  keep  them  water- 
tight. The  clay  remains  to  this  day,  as  also  do  the 
wooden  hoops  (or  did  till  very  recently),  but  the 
latter  are  as  soft  as  touchwood."  The  description 
of  these  casks  reminds  one  of  casks  somewhat 
similar  which  have  been  found  in  Roman  wells  at 
Silchester,  and  were  exhibited  in  the  rooms  of  the 
Society  of  Antiquaries  at  Burlington  House,  but 
examples  more  analogous,  because  of  a  similar  date, 
were  brought  to  light  not  long  ago  in  the  course 


of  alterations  at  the  Bank  of  England.  In  the 
wells  beneath  No.  4  Coleman  Street  were  discovered 
various  pieces  of  pottery  in  remarkably  good  pre- 
servation, and  of  types  ranging  from  the  beginning 
of  the  fifteenth  to  the  end  of  the  seventeenth 
century,  which  are  now  at  the  Guildhall  Museum, 
The  soil  in  which  these  old  wells  were  sunk  was 
dark  and  peaty ;  in  all  probability  it  once  formed 
part  of  the  marsh  land  of  Moorfields. 

If  the  reader  cares  now  to  explore  the  lanes 
about  the  neighbourhood  of  Cannon  Street  Rail- 
way Station,  it  will  be  a  pleasure  to  intro- 
duce him  to  a  few  capital  specimens  of  old  city 
architecture  ;  and  by  slightly  prolonging  our  walk 
we  may  pay  a  flying  visit  to  No.  73  Cheapside 
which  is  or  has  been  known  as  the  "  Old  Mansion 
House."  According  to  the  usual  accounts,  it 
obtained  this  name  from  the  fact  that  Sir  William 
Turner,  for  whom  it  was  built  shortly  after  the 
Great  Fire,  here  kept  his  mayoralty  in  1668-69. 
On  an  engraving  of  the  house,  dating  apparently 
from  about  1825,  it  is  described  as  the  residence 
of  Mr.  Tegg,  the  bookseller,  the  design  being 
attributed  to  Sir  Christopher,  but  this  seems  to  be 
all  the  authority  for  the  latter  statement  Since 
then  the  front  has  been  modernised,  but  there  is 


still  an  old  staircase  with  massive  newels  and 
balusters,  dating  no  doubt  from  the  seventeenth 

We  will  now  make  our  way  to  Laurence 
Poultney  Hill,  a  narrow  lane  running  south  from 
Cannon  Street,  a  short  distance  to  the  east  of  the 
railway  station,  and  as  we  pause  for  a  moment 
we  may  note  an  inscription  on  the  corner  house 
telling  us  that  it  leads  to  Duck's  Foot  Lane  and 
to  Suffolk  Lane.  Here  one  has  a  group  of  names 
conveying  an  historic  lesson,  the  name  Poultney 
indicates  the  former  connection  of  Sir  John  de 
Pulteney,  four  times  Mayor  of  London,  with  the 
parish,  while  Duck's  Foot  Lane  is  undoubtedly  a 
corruption  of  "Duxfield,"  which  in  its  turn  is 
equivalent  to  "  Dukes  Field"  Lane,  having  reference 
to  Dukes  of  Suffolk  and  other  dukes  who  in 
succession  held  the  property  which  had  belonged 
to  the  great  citizen,  de  Pulteney.  I  shall  revert 
to  this  subject  in  another  chapter  when  describing 
a  crypt  destroyed  here  some  years  ago  ;  meantime 
we  will  glance  at  two  or  three  merchants'  houses 
still  to  be  found  in  the  neighbourhood. 

A  few  yards  down  Laurence  Poultney  Hill,  on 
the  west  side,  we  shall  see  two  beautiful  doorways 
of  a  style  which  was  not  unusual  in  the  reign  of 


Queen  Anne,  but  these  specimens  are  among  the 
best  in  existence.  An  important  brick  mansion, 
built  on  this  site  immediately  after  the  Great  Fire, 
was  in  1702  sold  to  Thomas  Denning,  citizen  and 
Salter,  and  in  the  following  year  replaced  by  the 
houses  of  which  these  doorways  form  part.  Within 
one  of  their  shell-shaped  canopies  is  the  date  of 
erection,  and  on  the  other  are  the  figures  in  relief 
of  two  boys  playing  at  marbles.  This  house  has 
a  handsome  staircase,  shown  through  the  open 
door  in  our  illustration.  The  Rev.  H.  B.  Wilson, 
D.D.,  who  published  in  1831  an  account  of  the 
parish  of  St.  Laurence  Poultney,  and  was  a  master 
of  Merchant  Taylors'  School,  resided  here,  the 
house  to  the  left  being  then  occupied  by  Mr.  Justin 
Fitzgerald.  The  general  effect  of  the  two  build- 
ings, which  form  one  architectural  composition,  is 
spoiled  by  an  ugly  modern  addition  in  front. 

Immediately  to  the  west  or  south-west  is  Suffolk 
Lane,  united  to  Laurence  Poultney  Hill  by  a  short 
roadway,  and  here  No.  2,  although  outside  there 
is  nothing  particularly  attractive  about  it,  contains 
in  a  ground-floor  room,  above  the  carved  marble 
mantelpiece  and  on  the  walls,  decorative  plaster 
work  of  rather  an  elaborate  kind.  It  is  Italian 
in   style,  and,    although   perhaps  somewhat   more 



modern,  much  resembles  work  executed  by  Italian 
plasterers  in  1725-26  at  Ditchley  in  Oxfordshire, 
the  home  of  Viscount  Dillon.  Their  names  were 
Giuseppe  Artavi,  Francesco  Serena,  and  Francesco 
Vassali,  as  shown  in  still-existing  documents.  In 
the  calendar  of  the  Sherborne  Muniments,  under 
date  1724, 1  find  among  Sir  John  Button's  accounts 
the  following  entry  : — *'  To  Sign""  S.  Vassalii  for 
making  14  busts  and  pedestals  and  busts  in  my 
hall,  20li.  9s."  There  are  also  at  2  Suffolk  Lane 
fine  carved  over-doors,  and  a  pretty  mantelpiece 
upstairs  with  painted  plaques  in  the  style  some- 
what of  Angelica  KaufFmann. 

A  little  farther  west  is  College  Hill,  so  named 
because  Richard  Whittington,  perhaps  the  best 
remembered  of  all  the  mediasval  Mayors  of  London, 
here  founded  a  College  of  St.  Spirit  and  St.  Mary. 
He  was  buried  in  St.  Michael's  Church  hard  by, 
which  was  destroyed  in  the  Great  Fire,  and  rebuilt 
by  Sir  Christopher  Wren,  whose  handsome  tower 
still  adorns  the  narrow  thoroughfare.  Here,  also, 
two  gateways  with  sculptured  pediments  remain 
which  might  have  been  designed  by  Wren.  It 
is  worthy  of  remark  that  on  College  Hill  was  the 
house  and  courtyard  of  "  Zimri,"  the  second  and 
last  Duke  of  Buckingham  of  the  Villiers  family, 


who,  as  Strype  tells  us,  lived  in  this  street  for 
some  time  "upon  a  particular  humour."  Hatton, 
in  his  New  View  of  London,  1708,  says  that  this  is 
"a  spacious  building  on  the  east  side  of  College 
Hill,  now  or  late  in  the  possession  of  Sir  John 
LethieuUier,"  and  as  regards  the  position  of  the 
house  he  is  followed  by  Peter  Cunningham  in 
his  famous  handbook  of  London.  However,  in 
Ogilby  and  Morgan's  plan  of  1677,  and  in  the 
plan  attached  to  Strype's  edition  of  Stow,  the 
Duke's  dwelling  is  distinctly  shown  on  the  west 
side  of  College  Hill. 

At  present  the  gateways  are  incorporated  in  a 
frontage  which  in  old  leases  is  always  called  "  the 
stable."  They  form  the  means  of  access  to  two 
houses  under  one  roof;  that  to  the  south — No. 
21  College  Hill — being  a  capital  specimen  of  a 
merchant's  dwelling  of  the  early  part  of  the 
eighteenth  century,  with  a  handsome  staircase, 
carved  over-doors,  and  a  finely-panelled  room  on 
the  first  floor.  They  stand  back  some  distance 
from  the  street  and  have  no  particular  relation 
with  the  gateways,  which  are  older  in  style. 
Underneath  both  houses  run  very  large  cellars, 
which  are  connected,  and  within  meinory  there 
was  a  small   garden  at   the  back  of  No.  21.     In 


1746  this  house  belonged  to  Charles  LethieuUier, 
and  was  then  tenanted  by  Sir  Samuel  Pennant, 
the  previous  occupant  having  been  Sir  Robert 
Godschall.  The  house  afterwards  passed  by 
marriage  to  the  Hulses ;  for  many  years  it  has 
been  in  the  hands  of  the  Wilde  family,  which  has 
produced  two  eminent  judges — Lord  Truro  and 
Lord  Penzance. 

Taking  into  consideration  the  fact  of  the  pro- 
perty having  once  belonged  to  the  Lethieulliers, 
from  its  ground  plan,  and  from  the  style  of  the 
gateways  themselves,  and  of  the  building  to  which 
they  are  attached,  it  seems  not  improbable  that 
here  were  the  stables  of  Buckingham  House  with 
a  garden  at  the  back.  The  house  between  the 
gateways  and  the  church  was  built  for  the  Mercers' 
School,  being  opened  by  the  master  and  wardens 
of  the  Company,  June  6,  1832,  and  is  said  to 
occupy  the  site  of  Whittington's  dwelling.  The 
school  has  of  late  vears  been  removed  to  Barnard's 
Inn,  which  we  shall  presently  visit.  The  building 
on  College  Hill  remains  intact. 

From  the  foot  of  College  Hill,  a  short  walk 
along  Upper  Thames  Street  towards  the  west,  and 
then  a  turn  to  the  river,  would,  not  many  years  ago, 
have  taken  us  to  Paul's  Pier,  now  no  longer  in  exist- 

1^  L 


ence.  Thence  the  view  was  one  which  we  felt  must 
be  recorded.  In  the  immediate  foreground  stood 
a  curious  riverside  dwelling,  squeezed  in  between 
two  great  warehouses,  its  quaint  bay  window  pro- 
jecting over  a  wide  doorway  for  the  passage  of 
goods,  which  opened  on  to  the  Thames.  The 
house,  containing  two  staircases  and  nineteen 
rooms,  was  in  1891  still  occupied  as  a  private 
residence,  being  let  in  apartments,  and  was  one  of 
the  last  of  its  kind  on  the  Thames  bank  in  London. 
It  was  popularly  supposed  to  be  three  hundred 
years  old,  and  to  have  been  occupied  by  James  I., 
the  building  on  an  adjoining  wharf  being  used  as  a 
barrack  for  his  soldiers,  but  from  the  architectural 
point  of  view  there  was  nothing  to  indicate  that  it 
dated  from  before  the  end  of  the  seventeenth  or 
beginning  of  the  eighteenth  century.  East  Paul's 
Wharf,  immediately  west  of  it,  had  been  rebuilt  in 
1890,  but  the  large  warehouse  adjoining  this  on  the 
west,  known  as  Paul's  Wharf,  and  sometimes  called 
**  the  barracks,"  looked  as  if  it  had  been  built  in  the 
latter  half  of  the  eighteenth  century.  It  ran  back 
some  distance,  having  twelve  gables  alongside  the 
way  to  Paul's  Pier.  Shortly  after  the  completion 
of  our  drawing,  a  subterranean  brick  tunnel  (partly 
under  the  old  house)  was  discovered.     It  began  at 


a  distance  of  about  50  feet  from  the  Thames,  and 
extended  in  a  northerly  direction  for  about  110 
feet,  being  14  feet  wide,  with  a  clear  way  of  some 
8  feet,  after  allowing  for  a  deep  deposit  of  mud 
along  the  floor.  Within,  the  roof  of  the  arch 
was  covered  with  stalactites  in  some  cases  a  yard 
long ;  the  two  ends  had  been  bricked  up.  The 
writer  of  an  article  in  the  Builder  for  August  2, 
1891,  suggests  that  this  tunnel  may  possibly  have 
been  made  to  assist  in  carrying  off  the  torrents 
that  used  to  run  down  the  steep  inclines  in  this 
part  of  the  town  after  great  and  sudden  rains, 
sometimes  to  the  peril  of  human  life.  The  old 
house,  the  "barracks,"  and  the  tunnel  were  all 
destroyed  in  1898.  During  the  work  of  recon- 
struction, ancient  timber  piling  came  to  light 
which  had  been  used  for  the  embankment  of  the 

Stow  describes  Paul's  Wharf  as  "  a  large  land- 
ing-place with  a  common  stair  upon  the  river 
Thames,  at  the  end  of  a  street  called  Paul's  Wharf 
Hill,  which  runneth  down  from  Paul's  Chain." 
We  have  already  noted  the  fact  that  the  iron 
railings  for  St.  Paul's  Cathedral  were  landed  at 
Paul's  Wharf.  Letters  to  Sir  John  Paston  "at 
the  George  by  Powley's  Wharf,"  were  written  as 


long  ago  as  1476.    From  here  a  seventeenth-century 
trade  token  was  issued,  reading  as  follows  : — 

Obverse, — at  •  ye  •  next  •  boat  •  by  •  pavls  = 

A  boat  containing  three  men ;  over  it,  next  boat. 

Reverse, — wharfe  •  at  •  peters  •  hill  •  foot  = 

M.  M.  B. 

Paul's  Pier  was  within  a  few  minutes'  walk  of 
Dean's  Court,  St.  Paul's  Churchyard,  where  stands 
the  Deanery,  the  wall  enclosing  which  is  shown,  in 
one  of  our  illustrations,  on  the  left.  In  1894  great 
changes  took  place  at  this  spot,  which  had  before 
been  singularly  quiet  and  old  -  fashioned.  The 
entrance  from  St.  Paul's  Churchyard  was  until 
then  through  an  archway,  under  a  house  dating 
from  immediately  after  the  Great  Fire,  which  was 
said  traditionally  to  have  been  used  by  Wren  as  an 
office  after  the  rebuilding  of  St.  Paul's.  This 
house  is  shown  in  course  of  demolition,  while  the 
ground  on  the  right  lies  vacant,  and  we  were  thus 
enabled  to  have  a  glimpse  of  the  Cathedral,  now 
again  quite  concealed.  The  houses  to  the  east, 
facing  St.  Paul's  Churchyard,  together  with  the 
Vicar-General's  office,  and  other  houses  on  the 
same  side  of  Dean's  Court,  were  cleared  away  to 
enable   Messrs.   Pawson  and   Co.    to  extend  their 


warehouses,  the  Ecclesiastical  Commissioners 
having  granted  them  a  building  lease  for  that 

Dean's  Court  did  not  actually  form  part  of  the 
precinct  of  Doctors'  Commons  (finally  cleared 
away  in  1867),  but  was  associated  with,  and  in  its 
immediate  neighbourhood.  Sam  Weller  in  Pick- 
wick  thus  humorously  refers  to  the  entrance : — 
"St.  Paul's  Churchyard  —  low  archway  on  the 
carriage  side,  bookseller's  at  one  corner,  hotel  on 
the  other,  and  two  porters  in  the  middle  as  touts 
for  licences."  It  was  here  that  his  father  was 
inveigled  into  matrimony.  The  Dean's  house,  yet 
standing,  was  built  by  Wren,  after  the  Great  Fire, 
on  the  site  of  the  former  Deanery,  but  shorn  of  the 
chief  part  of  its  garden  stretching  down  to  the 
river,  which  was  portioned  off  in  building  leases  to 
defray  the  cost  of  the  new  structure.  The  porch 
is  decorated  with  carved  festoons  of  flowers  in  the 
style  of  Grinling  Gibbons.  There  is  also  a  hand- 
some staircase.  Little  more  than  a  generation  ago 
rooks  used  to  build  on  the  plane  trees  in  front. 

Immediately  opposite  to  the  south  end  of 
Dean's  Court,  in  Carter  Lane,  an  old  inn  called 
the  Swan  with  two  Necks,  with  a  painted  sign 
against  the  wall  in  front,  was   standing  until  the 


end  of  1894.  It  had  been  a  coaching  house,  but  of 
modest  dimensions,  never  a  rival  of  the  famous 
Swan  with  two  Necks  in  Lad  Lane,  once  the  head- 
quarters of  Mr.  William  Chaplin,  perhaps  the 
greatest  coach  proprietor  that  ever  lived.  Times 
having  changed,  the  building  facing  Carter  Lane 
became  an  ordinary  public-house,  while  the  galleried 
portion  at  the  back  was  occupied  by  persons  in  the 
employment  of  Messrs.  Pawson,  the  great  ware- 
housemen. This  drawing  was  made  in  October 
1894,  when  the  place  had  just  been  vacated,  having 
been  taken  over  by  the  Post  Office  authorities. 
At  that  time  the  place  was  overrun  by  a  legion  of 
half  -  starved  rats,  their  supply  of  food  having 
suddenly  been  cut  off  by  the  exodus  of  the  human 
inhabitants.  A  Post  Office  Savings  Bank  was 
shortly  afterwards  built  on  the  site. 

The  origin  of  the  sign  has  often  been  explained, 
but  as  a  rule  inaccurately.  Perhaps,  for  reference, 
it  will  be  useful  to  put  the  explanation  in  a  concise 
form.  The  swans  on  the  upper  reaches  of  the 
Thames  are  owned  respectively  by  the  Crown  and 
the  Dyers'  and  Vintners'  Companies  of  the  City  of 
London,  and,  according  to  ancient  custom,  the 
representatives  of  these  several  owners  make  an 
expedition  each  year  up  the  river  and   mark   the 



cygnets.  The  Royal  mark  used  to  consist  of  five 
diamonds,  the  Dyers'  of  four  bars,  and  the  Vintners' 
of  the  chevron  or  letter  V  and  two  nicks.  The 
word  "  nicks "  has  been  corrupted  into  necks,  and 
as  the  vintners  were  often  tavern-keepers,  the  Swan 
with  two  Necks  became  a  common  inn  and  tavern 
sign.  The  swan  marks  just  described  continued 
in  use  until  the  year  1878,  when  the  swanherds 
were  prosecuted  by  the  Society  for  the  Prevention 
of  Cruelty  to  Animals,  on  the  ground  that  they 
inflicted  unnecessary  pain.  Although  the  prosecu- 
tion failed,  the  marks  have  since  been  simplified. 

Other  houses  of  entertainment  more  or  less  in 
this  part  of  the  City,  which  have  ceased  to  be,  within 
the  memory  of  most  of  us,  deserve  a  short  obituary 
notice  before  we  conclude  this  chapter.  The  Green 
Dragon  Inn  on  St.  Andrew's  Hill,  must  from  the 
first  have  been  but  a  humble  hostelry,  but  from  the 
back  at  least  it  was  very  picturesque,  dating  no 
doubt  from  immediately  after  the  Great  Fire.  It 
was  drawn  by  the  writer  in  1890,  and  pulled  down 
in  1896.  St.  Andrew's  Hill  was  first  called  Puddle 
Hill,  afterwards  Puddle  Dock  Hill,  from  the 
neighbouring  wharf  of  that  name.  Shakespeare 
owned  property  in  Ireland  Yard  hard  by,  near  the 
Blackfriars'  theatre,  with  which  he  was  associated. 




In  Ireland  Yard  also  remains  of  the  famous  house 
of  the  Dominican  Friars  were  lately  brought  to 
light.  A  quaintly -named  house  was  the  Goose 
and  Gridiron  in  London  House  Yard,  north  of 
St.  Paul's  Cathedral,  demolished  about  1896. 
Set  into  the  wall  in  front  was  a  stone  tablet 
having  on  it  a  bishop's  mitre,  the  initals  TF,  and 
the  date  1786,  and  on  the  top  of  a  lamp  pro- 
jecting from  below  a  first-floor  window  was  a 
veritable  imitation  of  a  goose  on  a  gridiron,  now 
to  be  seen  in  the  Guildhall  Museum.  Before  the 
Great  Fire  there  was  a  house  with  the  sign  of 
the  mitre  in  London  House  Yard,  perhaps  on 
this  very  spot,  where  in  the  year  1642  were  to  be 
seen,  among  other  curiosities  "a  choyce  Egyptian 
with  hieroglyphicks,  a  Remora,  a  Torpedo,  the 
Huge  Thighbone  of  a  Giant,"  etc.,  as  then  adver- 
tised ;  and  again  in  1644,  Robert  Hubert,  alias 
Forges,  '*  Gent,  and  sworn  servant  to  his  Majesty," 
exhibited  here  a  museum  of  natural  rarities.  The 
catalogue  describes  them  as  "collected  by  him 
with  great  Industrie,  and  thirty  years'  travel  into 
foreign  countries ;  daily  to  be  seen  at  the  place 
called  the  Musick-house  at  the  Mitre,  near  the 
west  end  of  St.  Paul's  Church."  Concerts  were 
doubtless  among  the  attractions  the  house  provided. 


until  its  destruction  in  the  Great  Fire.  It  has  been 
suggested  that  on  the  rebuilding  of  the  premises, 
the  new  tenant,  to  ridicule  the  character  of  the 
former  business,  chose  as  his  sign  a  goose  stroking 
the  bars  of  a  gridiron  with  her  foot,  and  wrote 
below  *'The  Swan  and  Harp."  This  explanation 
of  the  origin  of  the  sign  is  at  least  ingenious. 
Larwood  and  Hotten  think  that  it  was  a  homely 
rendering  of  a  charge  in  the  coat  of  arms  of  the 
Musicians'  Company. 

At  the  Goose  and  Gridiron  Sir  Christopher 
Wren  presided  over  the  St.  Paul's  Lodge  of  Free- 
masons for  upwards  of  eighteen  years.  In  that 
curious  tavern  book,  the  Vade  Mecum  of  Malt- 
worms,  there  is  a  drawing  of  the  sign,  and  we  are 
told  in  doggerel  as  rude  that — 

Dutch  carvers  from  St.  Paul's  adjacent  dome, 
Hither  to  whet  their  whistles  daily  come. 

The  Goose  and  Gridiron,  eighty  years  ago,  was  a 
famous  house  of  call  for  coaches  to  •  Hammersmith, 
and  various  villages  west  of  London. 

A  far  more  important  and  more  picturesque 
hostelry  was  the  Oxford  Arms,  approached  by  a 
passage  from  Warwick  Lane,  extending  to  Amen 
Corner  on  the  south,   and  bounded  on  the  west 



by  the  site  of  the  old  London  wall.  A  writer 
in  the  Athenceum  of  May  20,  1876,  thus  writes 
of  it  immediately  before  its  demolition  : — "  Despite 
the  confusion,  the  dirt,  and  the  decay,  he  who 
stands  in  the  yard  of  this  ancient  inn  may  get  an 
excellent  idea  of  what  it  was  like  in  the  days  of 
its  prosperity,  when  not  only  travellers  in  coach 
or  saddle  rode  into  or  out  of  the  yard,  but  poor 
players  and  mountebanks  set  up  their  stage  for  the 
entertainment  of  spectators,  who  hung  over  the 
galleries  or  looked  on  from  their  rooms — a  name 
by  which  the  boxes  of  a  theatre  were  first  kno  vn." 
The  house  must  have  been  rebuilt  after  the 
Great  Fire  which  raged  over  all  this  area.  That 
it  existed  before,  is  proved  by  the  following  odd 
advertisement  from  the  London  Gazette  for  March 
1672-73  :— "These  are  to  give  notice  that  Edward 
Bartlet,  Oxford  Carrier,  hath  removed  his  Inn  in 
London  from  the  Swan  at  Holborn  Bridge  to  the 
Oxford  Arms  in  Warwick  Lane,  where  he  did  Inn 
before  the  Fire.  His  coaches  and  waggons  going 
forth  on  their  usual  days,  Mondays,  Wednesdays, 
and  Fry  days.  He  hath  also  a  hearse,  and  all  things 
convenient  to  carry  a  Corps  to  any  part  of  England.' 
In  the  palmy  days  of  coaching,  just  before  the 
advent  of  railways,  the  Oxford  Arms  was  occupied 


by  Mr.  Edward  Sherman,  who  carried  on  his 
chief  coaching  business  at  the  Bull  and  Mouth, 
St.  Martin's-le-Grand.  After  1868  many  of  the 
rooms  were  let  out  in  tenements,  but  the  inn  still 
did  a  good  carriers'  trade,  carts  leaving  daily  for 
Oxford  and  other  places.  It  was  closed  in  1875, 
and  pulled  down  in  the  following  year.  Views  of 
this  house  formed  the  first  of  a  series  issued  by  the 
society  for  photographing  relics  of  old  London. 
Mr.  Alfred  Marks,  the  accomplished  secretary, 
wrote  most  useful  accompanying  notes.  Another 
old  galleried  house,  which  long  lingered  in  Warwick 
Lane,  but  on  the  opposite  side,  was  the  Bell  Inn, 
where  Archbishop  Leighton  died  in  1684.  As 
Burnet  tells  us,  he  had  often  said  that  '*  if  he  were 
to  choose  a  place  to  die  in  it  should  be  an  Inn  ;  it 
looked  like  a  pilgrim's  going-home  to  whom  this 
world  was  all  as  an  Inn,  and  who  was  weary  of  the 
noise  and  confusion  in  it."  Thus  his  desire  was 



London  ;  that  great  sea  whose  ebb  and  flow 
At  once  is  deaf  and  loud_,  and  on  the  shore 
Vomits  its  wrecks^  and  still  howls  on  for  more. 
Yet  in  its  depth  what  treasures  ! 


A  FACT,  of  which  many  people  are  unaware,  is 
that  in  ancient  cities  the  soil  has  almost  invariably 
accumulated  to  a  considerable  depth,  so  that  the 
houses  stand  on  successive  layers  of  debris,  reveal- 
ing all  sorts  of  hidden  treasures  which  tell  the  story 
of  the  site.  This  is  eminently  the  case  in  the  City 
of  London,  especially  in  that  part  of  it  contained 
within  the  line  of  the  ancient  walls.  All  this  area 
was  long  occupied  by  the  Romans,  and  if  the  site 
is  excavated  down  to  the  primeval  soil,  as  is  almost 
always  the  case  nowadays  when  a  new  building 
is  about  to  be  erected,  evidence  is  often  found  of 

Roman,  Saxon,  and  Norman  occupation,  and  so  on 



through  later  times,  a  calcined  layer  indicating  the 
effects  of  the  Great  Fire,  while  near  the  surface 
objects  of  the  eighteenth  century  are  exposed  to 
view.  Another  place  where  ancient  objects  have 
accumulated  and  been  preserved  is  the  bed  of  the 
Thames,  especially  along  the  line  of  old  London 
Bridge.  Various  collections  of  such  objects  have 
from  time  to  time  been  made,  the  largest  and 
the  most  easily  consulted  is  that  at  the  Guild- 
hall Museum ;  but  unfortunately,  in  spite  of  our 
boasted  business  qualities,  we  are  not  a  methodical 
people,  and  there  has  been  no  systematic  register 
of  excavations,  or  record  of  the  finds.  In  the 
most  frequented  parts  of  the  old  city  the  Roman 
remains  are  sometimes  covered  with  not  less  than 
eighteen  feet  of  debris  or  even  more,  but  along 
the  line  of  the  old  wall,  that  is  on  the  fringe  of  the 
City,  as  a  rule  one  finds  the  Roman  ground  level 
considerably  nearer  the  surface. 

When,  in  the  course  of  the  year  1903,  that 
most  impressive  piece  of  architecture,  Newgate 
Prison,  was  levelled  with  the  ground,  one  was  not 
surprised  to  hear  that  remains  of  the  Roman  wall 
of  London  were  being  brought  to  light,  for  we 
all  knew  that  Dance's  building  had  displaced  a 
portion  of  that  structure.      It  was  the  privilege 


of  the  writer  to  see  these  and  other  remams  im- 
mediately after  they  were  laid  bare,  and  he  had 
the  melancholy  satisfaction  of  visiting  the  site 
frequently  whilst  they  were  being  demolished,  a 
work  which  took  several  months.  A  piece  of 
Roman  wall  was  discovered,  not  less  than  68  feet 
in  length.  It  was  8^  feet  thick  at  the  Roman 
ground  level,  and  the  undeniably  Roman  masonry 
rose  to  about  an  equal  height,  its  top,  nevertheless^ 
being  below  the  level  of  Newgate  Street.  The 
construction  was  like  that  of  other  portions  of  the 
Roman  wall  which  from  time  to  time  have  been 
examined.  Immediately  above  the  ground  level 
on  the  outside  it  had  a  plinth  of  ironstone,  the  wall 
generally  being  faced  on  each  side  with  roughly 
squared  stones  of  Kentish  "rag."  The  interior 
was  composed  of  fragments  of  ragstone  carefully 
packed,  on  to  which  mortar  had  been  poured  in 
a  liquid  or  semi -liquid  state,  and  the  wall  was 
bonded  with  courses  of  large  flat  tiles  which  ran 
right  through.  Outside  its  facing  was  a  good  deal 
dilapidated,  but  towards  the  east  it  was  in  remark- 
ably good  condition.  Standing  up  boldly  to  a  con- 
siderable height  above  the  virgin  sand  and  gravel, 
it  formed  a  picturesque  and  interesting  object,  the 
destruction  of  which  one  could  not  but  lament. 




A  detached  fragment  of  masonry,  near  Newgate 
Street,  must  have  belonged  to  the  Roman  gateway 
which,  as  archaeologists  now  agree,  once  stood  upon 
this  site.  West  of  this  was  a  portion  of  the 
mediaeval  gateway,  which  we  now  discover  to  have 
been  injured,  not  destroyed,  in  the  Great  Fire  of 
London.  Remains  of  a  broad  ditch  were  also 
discovered,  together  with  fragments  of  Roman 
pottery  and  other  relics.  Among  them  was  part 
of  a  small  mediaeval  statue  held  to  represent  St. 
Christopher  and  the  infant  Christ,  which  has  been 
pieced  together  and  is  now  in  the  Guildhall  Museum. 

Reference  to  the  Roman  wall  reminds  one  that 
originally  the  wall  of  London  on  this  side,  after 
joining  Ludgate  to  the  south,  ran  straight  down 
from  there  to  the  Thames.  In  the  year  1276  the 
Friars-Preachers  of  the  Dominicati  Order,  com- 
monly known  as  the  Black  Friars,  who  had  found 
the  original  establishment  of  the  order  in  Holborn 
too  small  for  their  requirements,  secured  a  piece  of 
land  to  the  south  and  south-west  of  Ludgate.  It 
was  not,  however,  until  1278  that  the  necessary 
license  was  obtained  from  the  Bishop  and  Chapter 
of  London  to  erect  a  new  church  and  buildings. 
As  to  their  site,  Stow  says  that  "  Gregory  Rokesley, 
mayor,  and  the  barons  of  London  granted  and  gave 


to  Robert  Kilwarbie,  Archbishop  of  Canterbury, 
two  lanes  or  ways  next  the  street  of  Baynard's 
Castle,  and  also  the  tower  of  Mountfitchet  to  be 
destroyed,  on  the  which  place  the  said  Robert  built 
the  late  new  church  with  the  rest  of  the  stones 
that  were  left  of  the  said  tower."  It  seems,  there- 
fore, that  both  these  men  helped  the  Friars  largely  ; 
and  in  1311  Edward  II.  by  charter  confirmed  the 
gift.  The  Friars  were  also  allowed  to  pull  down 
the  City  wall  and  to  take  in  all  the  land  to  the 
west  as  far  as  the  Fleet  river,  and  it  was  intimated 
to  the  Mayor  that  the  new  wall  should  be  built  at 
the  expense  of  the  City.  Thus  we  know  rather 
accurately  when  the  Norman  tower  of  Mountfitchet 
and  this  part  of  the  Roman  wall  were  destroyed. 
A  glance  at  the  map  enables  us  to  feel  almost 
certain  that  the  latter  ran  down  to  or  through  the 
Times  printing  ofiice. 

In  May  1900,  on  the  pulling  down  of  No.  7 
Ireland  Yard,  St.  Andrew's  Hill,  previously  in  the 
occupation  of  Messrs.  Reuben  Lidstone  and  Son, 
carpenters,  attention  was  called  to  mediaeval  arches 
and  vaulting,  the  upper  part  of  which  had  been 
always  visible  above  ground.  A  painting,  done  at 
this  time,  has  been  reproduced  as  one  of  our  illus- 
trations.    When  the  modern  buildings  to  the  east 


w  ere  also  removed,  further  remains  came  to  light, 
the  whole  being  of  considerable  extent  and 

As  we  know  from  a  Loseley  manuscript,  the 
church  of  the  Friars-Preachers  was  an  important 
structure,  measuring  in  breadth  66  feet,  and  in 
length  220  feet,  dimensions  rather  greater  than 
those  of  St.  Saviour's,  Southwark.  Within  the 
precinct  of  Blackfriars,  before  the  Reformation, 
stood  the  Church  of  St.  Anne,  afterwards  rebuilt 
and  finally  destroyed  in  the  Great  Fire.  The 
remains  which  came  to  light  in  1900,  extending 
almost  from  Friar  Street  on  the  east  to  St.  Anne's 
churchyard  on  the  west,  were  about  27  feet  wide 
by  40  feet,  but  the  building  had  originally  been 
longer.  The  space  had  been  divided  into  two 
alleys  of  equal  dimensions  (each  being  between 
13  and  14  feet  wide)  by  a  row  of  Purbeck  marble 
shafts,  four  in  number,  which  supported  the  stone 
vaulting  of  the  roof  One  of  these  shafts  remained 
in  situ,  and  still  carried  a  cross  rib  springing  at  the 
other  end  from  a  corbel  attached  to  the  north  wall. 
The  stone  of  this  rib  had  been  reddened  by  the 
action  of  fire.  The  base  of  the  shaft  was  9  feet 
below  the  present  ground  level,  the  total  height  from 
the  base  to  the  crown  of  the  arch  being  16  feet. 


The  most  perfect  piece  of  the  north  wall  was  that 
immediately  west  of  the  corbel  supporting  the 
cross  rib.  It  showed  the  remains  of  a  wall  arch, 
enclosing  and  partly  hiding  the  head  of  a  pointed 
window  still  fairly  perfect,  which  is  shown  in  our 
illustration.  In  the  same  wall,  farther  east,  were 
traces  of  a  similar  window.  In  the  ground  ex- 
cavated within  the  area  of  the  building,  many 
skulls  and  other  human  remains  were  found, 
huddled  together  without  order,  as  if  they  had 
been  transplanted  from  some  other  burial-place. 
It  is  clear  that  the  structure  of  which  these  remains 
formed  part  had  not  been  originally  connected 
with  the  parish  church  of  St.  Anne,  Blackfriars, 
the  site  of  this,  as  can  be  seen  in  Ogilby  and 
Morgan's  map  of  1677,  having  been  in  the  adjoin- 
ing burial-ground.  Moreover,  it  was  never  claimed 
for  that  church  that  it  had  been  founded  before 
the  fourteenth  century  at  the  earliest.  On  the 
other  hand,  the  style  of  the  remains  here  discovered 
exactly  fits  in  with  the  date  of  the  foundation  of 
the  House  of  Friars-Preachers ;  we  may  therefore 
be  sure  that  they  belonged  to  that  house.  They 
were  orientated,  but  whether  they  formed  part  of 
the  Friars'  church  or  not  is  at  present  an  open 
question.     Further  information  on  the  subject  may 


be  found  in  a  short  article  contributed  by  the 
writer  in  1901  to  the  first  part  of  the  London 
Topographical  Society's  Annual  Record. 

Ireland  Yard  is  approached  from  Water  Lane 
on  the  west,  through  Play  House  Yard  and  Glass 
House  Yard,  each  full  of  interesting  associations, 
although  these  associations  began  years  after  the 
passing  away  of  the  Friars.  Allusion  has  been 
made  on  a  previous  page  to  Shakespeare's  house 
in  Ireland  Yard.  In  the  deed  of  conveyance  to 
the  poet  it  is  described  as  "  abutting  upon  a  street 
leading  down  to  Puddle  Wharf,  and  now  or  late  in 
the  tenure  or  occupacon  of  one  William  Ireland." 

As  we  all  of  us  know,  London  in  the  Middle 
Ages  was  most  richly  supplied  with  ecclesiastical 
buildings.  Fitzstephen,  a  monk  who  wrote  in 
the  reign  of  Henry  II.,  tells  us  that  here  and  in 
the  suburbs  were  thirteen  churches  attached  to 
convents,  and  the  great  number  of  a  hundred  and 
thirty-six  parochial  ones.  The  glory  of  the  con- 
ventual establishment  passed  away  at  the  Reforma- 
tion, but  the  parish  churches  mostly  survived 
without  much  structural  change,  except  what 
became  necessary  through  lapse  of  time,  until  in 
the  Great  Fire  of  1666  no  less  than  eighty-six  of 
them  were  destroyed  or  badly  injured. 


A  dire  catastrophe  is  apt  to  call  forth  the 
energies  of  the  master  mind  that  can  grapple  with 
it.  This  was  the  case  when  Christopher  Wren, 
at  that  time  hardly  a  professional  architect,  turned 
his  attention  to  the  City.  In  spite  of  his  apparent 
inexperience,  he  had  already  made  a  few  fine 
designs  for  buildings,  for  instance  that  of  the 
chapel  of  Pembroke  College,  Cambridge,  and  the 
Sheldonian  Theatre,  Oxford,  and  he  had  a  con- 
siderable reputation  as  a  man  of  science.  Archi- 
tects were  then  few  and  far  between,  and  so  it 
came  about  that  to  him  was  assigned  the  task 
of  rebuilding  or  repairing  not  only  St.  Paul's 
Cathedral,  but  if  one  includes  St.  Mary  Woolnoth 
and  St.  Sepulchre  (both  only  repaired)  no  fewer 
than  fifty-two  City  churches.  In  carrying  out  his 
stupendous  undertaking,  Wren  was  cramped  and 
thwarted  by  many  difficulties,  not  the  least  of 
these  being  a  want  of  funds  ;  for  although  on  a  few 
important  churches,  notably  on  St.  Mary-le-Bow, 
St.  Bride's,  Fleet  Street,  Christ  Church,  Newgate 
Street,  and  St.  Lawrence  Jewry,  considerable  sums 
were  spent,  as  a  rule  he  was  compelled  to  practise 
strict  economy.  It  was  no  doubt  partly  on  this 
account  that  wherever  the  charred  walls,  or  merely 
the  foundations,  of  a  mediaeval  church  remained  in 


a  solid  condition  they  were  worked  into  his  build- 
ing. The  ground  plans  of  Wrens  churches  are 
often,  one  might  say  usually,  a  good  deal  out  of 
the  square.  In  such  cases  he  may  now  and  then 
be  merely  accommodating  himself  to  the  street 
line,  thus  including  as  much  as  possible  within  the 
prescribed  area ;  but  as  a  rule  he  is  utilising  old 
foundations,  for,  whereas  it  would  be  in  the  spirit 
of  Renaissance  architecture  to  plan  with  something 
approaching  to  mathematical  accuracy,  in  Gothic 
work  little  attention  was  paid  to  the  laying-out  of 
exact  parallelograms. 

For  a  century,  more  or  less,  all  Wren's  City 
churches  remained  intact,  except  St.  Mary  Wool- 
noth,  which  was  rebuilt  by  Nicholas  Hawksmoor 
in  1716,  its  repair  having  proved, a  failure.  The 
first  to  go  was  St.  Christopher -le- Stocks,  taken 
down  when  the  Bank  of  England  was  enlarged  in 
1781.  This  was  followed  by  St.  Michael,  Crooked 
Lane,  destroyed  to  make  room  for  the  approaches 
of  the  present  London  Bridge.  St.  Bartholomew, 
by  the  Exchange,  was  replaced  by  the  present  Sun 
Fire  Office  in  1841,  and  soon  afterwards  St.  Benet 
Fink  disappeared  on  the  rebuilding  of  the  Royal 
Exchange.  But  it  was  the  Union  of  City  Benefices 
Act,  passed  in  1858  and  1859,  which  has  facilitated 


the  destruction  of  Wren's  churches,  eighteen  of 
which  have  now  succumbed.  This,  whatever  one's 
feelings  may  be  about  the  necessity  of  providing 
churches  elsewhere,  cannot  but  be  a  matter  of 
regret  to  all  lovers  of  fine  architecture. 

The  Church  of  St.  Michael,  in  Wood  Street,  a 
little  to  the  north  of  Cheapside,  and  on  its  south 
side  touching  a  passage  called  Huggin  Lane,  built, 
or  rather  very  much  repaired  and  remodelled,  by 
Sir  Christopher  in  1675,  at  a  cost  of  only  a  little 
over  £2550,  was  pulled  down  under  the  provisions 
of  this  Act  in  1897,  and  the  parish,  together  with 
the  associated  parish  of  St.  Mary  Staining,  united 
with  that  of  St.  Alban,  Wood  Street.  It  was  one 
of  the  cheapest  of  Wren's  churches  and  also  one 
of  the  simplest.  In  this  particular  instance  one 
might  admit  that  the  interest  lay  not  so  much  in 
his  building  as  in  the  older  work  which  it  obscured. 
Externally,  the  east  end  was  the  most  conspicuous 
portion.  The  front  was  faced  with  Portland  stone, 
and  decorated  by  four  Ionic  pilasters  carrying  a 
cornice  and  pediment.  Between  these  were  three 
round-headed  windows.  A  clock  jutting  out  from 
the  pediment  was  added  in  the  nineteenth  century, 
and  Wren's  lantern  on  the  tower  had  been  replaced 
by  a  dull-looking  octagonal  spire.     The'  interior  of 



St.  Michael's  Church  was  very  plain,  being  more 
or  less  an  unbroken  parallelogram,  although  not 
absolutely  so,  as  the  two  side  walls  widened  out 
towards  the  east  end,  which  was  also  placed  askew. 
The  tower,  occupying  the  south-west  corner, 
projected  slightly  at  the  west  end.  Its  ground 
stage  was  blocked  up  so  as  to  form  an  apartment 
used  as  a  vestry. 

Of  the  Gothic  building  which  had  stood  on  this 
site,  the  earliest  direct  notice  with  which  the  writer 
is  acquainted  appears  in  the  will  of  Geoffrey  de 
Ambresbure,  goldsmith,  enrolled  in  the  Court  of 
Hu sting,  and  calendared  by  Dr.  Sharpe  under  the 
date  1272-73,  whereby  the  said  Geoffrey  assigns 
houses,  gardens,  and  rents,  in  this  parish  and  in 
that  of  St.  Giles,  Cripplegate,  for  the  purpose  of 
founding  a  chantry.  In  all  probability,  however, 
as  was  the  case  with  most  other  City  churches,  the 
date  of  foundation  was  very  much  earlier.  But  what- 
ever the  age  of  the  original  church  of  St.  Michael, 
Wood  Street,  the  first  documentary  evidence 
forthcoming,  which  helps  us  to  a  knowledge  of  the 
mediaeval  structure,  belongs  to  the  latter  part  of 
of  the  fourteenth  century,  and  this  merely  relates 
to  a  vestry  on  the  north  side  which  disappeared 
leaving  no  trace  behind.     More  important  is  a  later 


document  to  which  we  will  now  briefly  refer.  In 
the  year  1422,  John  Broun,  citizen  and  saddler, 
drew  up  his  will  (not  proved  until  1429-30)  in 
which,  while  disposing  of  the  rest  of  his  property 
in  various  ways,  he  made  the  following  bequest : — 
"  Item,  I  leave  to  Master  Robert  Fitzhugh  rector 
of  the  church  of  St.  Michael  in  Hoggenlane  and 
to  the  custodians  of  the  goods  and  work  of  this 
church,  and  to  four  parishioners  of  this  church  for 
the  time  being,  all  that  vacant  piece  of  ground, 
with  its  appurtenances  belonging  to  me,  in  the 
parish  of  St.  Michael,  between  the  said  church  of 
St.  Michael  on  the  east,  and  the  house  of  John 
Biernes  goldsmith  and  of  Benedicta  his  wife  on 
the  west  side,  and  the  house  of  the  rector  and  the 
burial-ground  of  the  said  church  on  the  north  side, 
and  the  lane  called  Hoggenlane  on  the  south 
side ;  on  which  piece  of  vacant  ground  stood  a 
house  lately  acquired  by  me  from  Agnes  Pychard 
and  others,  which  was  then  lately  built  and  which  I 
have  of  late  totally  destroyed  for  the  purpose  of  the 
enlargement  of  the  said  church  towards  the  west  and 
the  adding  of  a  belfry.  Further  as  a  contribution 
towards  the  cost  of  the  said  enlargement  I  leave 
the  sum  of  ten  pounds  sterling  and  the  sixteen 
pounds  which  Thomas  Lovell  gentleman  owes  me." 


Turning  now  to  the  mediseval  remains  at  the 
church ;  portions  of  these  had  always  been  more 
or  less  apparent.  Thus  a  water-colour  drawing, 
done  after  the  completion  of  the  modern  spire, 
shows  a  pointed  window  with  fifteenth -century- 
tracery  on  the  south  side  of  the  tower,  latterly 
blocked  up  as  to  the  upper  part,  while  the  lower 
portion  was  converted  into  what  looked  like  an 
ordinary  square  window,  serving  to  light  the 
vestry,  which,  as  we  have  seen,  occupied  the  ground 
floor  of  the  tower.  Again,  the  top  of  the  pointed 
north  tower-arch  was  visible  from  the  gallery  in 
the  tower,  above  the  vestry,  and  there  was  a  little 
turret  staircase  at  the  north-west  angle  of  the 
tower,  entered  from  the  nave  through  a  doorway 
with  fifteenth  -  century  mouldings.  On  passing 
through  this  doorway,  and  ascending  by  the  spiral 
staircase,  one  found  that  the  mediseval  masonry 
ended  within  three  or  four  feet  of  the  belfry  floor 
level,  and  the  building  was  carried  up  in  brick, 
evidently  Wren's  addition  after  the  Fire.  In  his 
brick  superstructure  he  had  placed  pointed  windows, 
perhaps  rough  imitations  of  those  which  had  existed 
before.  The  mediaeval  or  lower  part  of  the  stair- 
case had  been  lighted  by  three  little  quatrefoil 
windows  opening  into  the  church. 


When  the  building  was  pulled  down  it  was 
seen  that  the  lower  portion  of  the  tower  was 
wholly  Gothic.  The  most  perfect  piece  was  the 
engaged  arch  on  the  western  side  of  the  tower. 
The  north  and  south  arches  were  also  perfect 
enough  to  do  their  work,  the  latter  containing  the 
square  vestry  window  which  filled  the  lower  part 
of  the  space  formerly  occupied  by  the  pointed 
window.  The  eastern  arch  appeared,  as  far  as 
one  could  judge,  to  have  been  entirely  blocked  by 
Wren,  but  in  1831  the  upper  part  of  the  wall 
had  been  opened  into  the  church  and  a  small 
gallery  formed  over  the  vestry,  a  round-headed  arch 
being  inserted.  As  could  be  seen  by  their  general 
character  and  by  their  mouldings,  these  Gothic 
remains  were  of  the  early  fifteenth  century ;  thus 
they  coincided  with  the  documentary  evidence  of 
the  building  of  the  tower. 

Much  of  Wren's  south  and  east  walls  were 
formed  of  re-used  stone  from  the  old  church. 
There  was  ancient  masonry  at  the  east  end  of  the 
south  wall  up  to  2  or  3  feet  above  the  wainscoting, 
which  was  about  8  feet  high.  Embedded  in  the 
south  wall  near  the  tower,  among  other  fragments 
not  in  their  original  positions,  was  an  oblong  piece 
of  stone  of  considerable  size  with  three  quatrefoil 


openings,  now  in  the  Guildhall  Museum ;  the  use 
to  which  it  had  been  put  is,  we  think,  doubtful. 
The  portions  of  walling  not  of  old  material,  which 
dated  from  Wren's  time,  were  of  brick.  The 
foundations  of  the  church  seemed  to  be  generally 
mediaeval.  Some  encaustic  tiles,  the  majority  of 
which  are  now  in  the  Guildhall  Museum,  were 
found  beneath  the  floor  level.  They  dated  appar- 
ently from  the  fifteenth  century.  At  the  base  of 
the  tower  were  many  fragments  of  coloured  glass 
and  of  the  lead- work  in  which  it  was  fitted.  These 
belonged  to  the  fourteenth  century ;  neither  glass 
nor  lead  appears  to  have  been  injured  by  fire. 

Soon  after  the  destruction  of  St.  Michael's, 
Wood  Street,  Wren's  Church  of  St.  Michael, 
Bassishaw,  was  also  pulled  down,  and  here  also  a 
great  deal  of  mediaeval  work  was  found.  The 
tower  at  the  west  end,  as  finished  by  him,  looked 
not  unlike  an  Italian  campanile.  In  the  course  of 
demolition  its  lower  part  was  found  to  date  from 
the  end  of  the  fifteenth  century,  and  it  had  against 
its  west  side  a  holy  water  stoup  of  late  Gothic 
design.  There  were  rudely-arched  stone  founda- 
tions under  the  south  aisle,  and  at  its  east  end 
was  the  arched  entrance  to  the  vault  of  Sir  John 
Gresham,  Lord   Mayor   in   1547-48,  who  died   in 



:  ■■lit 



1554  He  was  brother  of  Sir  Richard,  uncle  of 
Sir  Thomas,  and  ancestor  of  the  Leveson  Gowers 
of  Titsey.  No  vault  remained  on  either  side  of 
this  entrance.  Inside  the  church,  traces  of  at 
least  two  buried  floors  came  to  light,  with  fine 
encaustic  tiles  in  situ.  These  are  mostly,  it  is 
believed,  in  the  Guildhall  Museum. 

Two  more  of  Wren's  churches  in  the  City  have 
been  pulled  down  since  the  writer  first  began  to 
make  a  study  of  its  architecture.  The  first  to 
succumb,  and  from  the  artist's  point  of  view  by 
far  the  most  picturesque  and  interesting,  was  that 
of  All  Hallows  the  Great  in  Upper  Thames  Street, 
torn  down  in  1894,  the  site  being  bought  by  a 
neighbouring  brewery.  Beyond  the  facts  that  the 
patronage  of  the  living  had  been  in  the  hands  of 
the  Le  Despencers,  and  afterwards  came  to  Richard 
Nevil,  Earl  of  Warwick,  "the  king-maker,"  not 
much  is  known  of  the  early  history  of  All  Hallows. 
It  is  said  by  Stow  to  have  been  called  "  Alhallowes 
the  More  in  Thames  street,  for  a  difference  from 
Alhallowes  the  Less  in  the  same  street — also  called 
Alhallowes  ad  foenum  in  the  Ropery,  because  hay 
sold  near  thereunto  at  Hay  wharf,  and  ropes  of 
old  time  made  and  sold  in  the  high  street."  He 
adds  that  *'  it  is  a  fair  church,  with  a  large  cloister 


on  the  south  side  thereof  about  their  churchyard, 
but  foully  defaced  and  ruinated." 

The  whole  was  destroyed  or  very  much  injured 
in  the  Great  Fire,  and  rebuilt  by  Wren,  who, 
according  to  his  custom,  used  such  parts  of  the 
walls  and  foundations  as  were  available.  The 
tower  and  north  aisle  or  ambulatory  of  this 
structure  (which  seems  never  to  have  been  open 
to  the  nave)  were  removed  in  1876  for  the  widening 
of  Upper  Thames  Street.  This,  however,  did  not 
affect  the  general  appearance  of  the  interior,  which 
had  been  very  little  changed  since  Wren's  time,  and 
was  in  fact  the  only  interior  of  a  Wren  church  at  all 
in  its  original  state,  except  that  of  the  small  church 
of  St.  Mildred,  Bread  Street ;  to  students  of  archi- 
tecture it  was  therefore  of  particular  value.  Among 
the  fittings  was  the  famous  open  screen,  shown  in 
our  illustration,  which  is  now  in  St.  Margaret's 
Church,  Lothbury.  This  is  usually  said  to  have 
been  made  at  Hamburg,  and  given  by  the  Hanseatic 
merchants  so  long  connected  with  the  neighbour- 
ing Steelyard.  It  is,  however,  clearly  English,  and 
seems  to  have  been  paid  for  in  the  ordinary  way. 
It  is  likely  that  German  merchants  subscribed 
towards  the  cost,  for  although  the  Hanseatic 
Company  in  London  had  lost  its  special  privileges 


during  the  reigns  of  Edward  VI.  and  Elizabeth^ 
their  property  in  the  Steelyard  was  not  confiscated^ 
and  they  kept  up  a  connection  with  the  church  and 
neighbourhood  until  comparatively  recent  times. 
It  may  be  observed  also  that  the  screen  has 
on  it  the  German  eagle.  The  pulpit,  with  its 
exquisite  sounding-board,  we  know  from  a  vestry 
book  to  have  been  given,  in  1862,  by  Theodore 
Jacobsen,  who  was  connected  with  the  Steel- 
yard. On  the  destruction  of  the  church  it  was 
found  that  part  of  the  old  south  wall  had  been 
incorporated  to  some  extent  in  Wren's  building,, 
and  elsewhere  some  of  the  old  stones  had  been 

The  last  of  Wren's  churches  to  be  mentioned  is 
tiiat  of  St.  George,  Botolph  Lane,  which  stood 
very  near  the  Billingsgate  and  Tower  Ward  School,, 
mentioned  in  a  previous  chapter,  but  on  the  opposite 
side  of  the  way.  It  occupied  the  site  of  an  ancient 
church  destroyed  in  the  Great  Fire,  and  was  pulled 
down  as  recently  as  the  year  1904.  The  doorway, 
by  which  one  entered  the  vestry  at  the  south-east 
corner,  has  so  far  been  left  standing,  and  with  the 
adjacent  houses  makes  up  a  scene  which  looks  as  if 
it  belonged  to  the  reign  of  good  Queen  Anne  rather 
than  to  the  twentieth  century.     The  fish  porter  and 



the  porters'  "  knots  "  introduced  into  our  illustration 
are  modern  enough,  but  they  serve  to  remind  us 
that  the  lower  end  of  Botolph  Lane  is  almost 
opposite  to  Billingsgate,  a  fact  which  a  blind  man 
who  had  once  visited  the  spot  might  easily  guess, 
for  the  odour  of  sanctity  which  it  may  once  have 
possessed  is  now  entirely  extinguished  by  "a  very 
ancient  and  fish-like  smell." 

St.  George's  was  rather  a  small  church,  the 
ground -plan  being  nearly  square,  with  a  tower 
breaking  into  it  at  the  north-west  angle.  Beyond 
the  fact  that,  like  all  Wren's  buildings,  it  was  finely 
proportioned,  there  was  nothing  very  remarkable 
about  it.  Among  its  fittings  was  a  wrought-iron 
sword-rest  with  an  inscription  to  the  memory  of 
William  Beckford,  twice  Lord  Mayor  of  London, 
and  father  of  William  Beckford  who  wrote  Vathek, 
At  present  the  site  of  the  church  is  lying  vacant ; 
perhaps  when  the  foundations  are  dug  up  we 
shall  find  stronger  evidence  than  has  yet  come 
to  light  of  its  early  origin.  The  earliest  mention 
of  it  known  to  the  writer  dates  from  the  year 
1295,  when  money  was  left  to  "  Sir  Thomas,  the 

We  have  already  visited  St.  Laurence  Poultney 
Hill,  Cannon  Street,  and  seen  the  fine  doorways 


there,  happily  still  in  existence.  A  favourable 
opportunity  now  occurs  for  describing  a  far  more 
ancient  relic  hard  by  which  survived  until  some 
ten  years  ago.  This  was  a  crypt  which  ran  east 
and  west,  extending  from  Laurence  Poultney  Hill 
to  Suffolk  Lane.  It  was  beneath  an  eighteenth - 
century  house,  No  3  Laurence  Poultney  Hill,  and 
was  partly  under  and  partly  above  ground,  the  prin- 
cipal chamber  being  entered  at  the  east  end  from 
the  street  above.  The  ancient  staircase  had  disap- 
peared. This  chamber  was  some  45  feet  long  by  18 
feet  to  20  feet  wide,  and  consisted  of  two  vaulted 
and  groined  bays,  which  together  occupied  about 
40  feet  of  the  length,  and  to  the  east  a  ribbed  barrel 
vault  about  5  feet  wide.  It  was  beautifully  propor- 
tioned but  somewhat  plain.  The  groins  were  sup- 
ported on  attached  shafts.  There  were  no  ridge  ribs 
in  the  vaulting  and  no  bosses.  The  floor  was  covered 
with  modern  planks,  on  the  removal  of  which  the 
ancient  floor  level  was  found  about  a  foot  below, 
the  bases  of  the  shafts  being  exposed  to  view.  The 
height  from  this  original  floor  to  the  crown  of  the 
vault  was  a  little  over  12  feet  6  inches.  Traces  of 
more  than  one  arched  opening  were  visible  on  the 
side  walls.  At  the  west  end  was  an  arched  door- 
way some  feet  above  the  floor  ;  while  to  the  left  of 


it  was  a  smaller  arch  filled  up,  in  the  jamb  of  which 
an  iron  hook  might  still  be  seen.  The  appearance 
of  this  chamber  may  be  gathered  from  the  accom- 
panying illustration.  Ascending  by  a  ladder,  and 
passing  through  the  doorway,  one  entered  a  narrow 
vaulted  passage  running  north  and  south,  its  floor 
being  4  feet  6  inches  above  the  old  floor  of  the 
crypt  just  described.  This  passage,  only  5  feet 
wide  and  9^  feet  high,  was  in  part  handsomely 
vaulted  and  groined ;  the  ribs  were  supported  on 
corbels  decorated  with  ornament ;  upon  these  were 
placed  moulded  capitals.  Some  ancient  stone  pave- 
ment was  here  visible,  and  at  one  end  there  were 
fragments  of  encaustic  tiles.  In  the  west  wall  of 
this  passage  were  two  arched  openings,  one  leading 
to  a  modern  staircase  which  communicated  with 
Suffolk  Lane.  The  other  led  into  a  vaulted 
room  only  some  8  feet  square  and  9  feet  3  inches 
high,  with  a  window,  comparatively  modern,  which 
was  above  the  level  of  the  street. 

In  a  paper  read  some  years  ago  before  the 
Society  of  Antiquaries  of  London  the  writer 
pointed  out  that  this  crypt  had  formed  part  of 
a  famous  house,  thus  mentioned  in  the  play  of 
Henry  VIII,  assigned  to  Shakespeare,  Act  I., 
Scene  i. : 


The  Duke  being  at  the  Rose,  within  the  Parish 
St.  Laurence  Poultney,  did  of  me  demand 
What  was  the  speech  among  the  Londoners 
Concerning  the  French  Journey. 

A  few  allusions  to  the  mansion  and  to  the 
people  who  occupied  it  will  perhaps  not  be 
thought  out  of  place,  and  by  way  of  introduction  I 
should  say  something  about  Sir  John  de  Pulteney's 
connection  with  the  neighbourhood.  Sir  John, 
who  was  called  by  Dr.  Milman  "the  most  muni- 
ficent "  of  London  citizens,  by  the  beginning  of  the 
reign  of  Edward  III.  had  earned  a  high  mercantile 
position  in  the  City  of  London.  Often  employed 
by  the  King  and  others  on  important  business,  he 
was  Mayor  of  London  in  1331,  1332,  1334,  and 
1337,  and  received  the  honour  of  knighthood  on  an 
important  occasion,  namely  when  Edward,  Prince 
of  Wales,  commonly  called  the  Black  Prince,  was 
created  Duke  of  Cornwall.  Sir  John  gave  largely 
for  purposes  of  religion.  In  1332  he  obtained  a 
letter  from  the  King  to  the  Pope  in  favour  of  a 
proposal  on  his  part  to  found  a  chantry  in  honour 
of  Corpus  Christi,  by  the  Church  of  St.  Laurence, 
Candlewick.  The  chantry,  which  absorbed  a 
previous  establishment  founded  by  Thomas  Cole 
for  a  master  and  one  or  two  chaplains,  seems  to 


have  been  originally  intended  for  seven  chaplains, 
but  was  afterwards  increased  to  form  a  college 
for  a  master,  thirteen  priests,  and  four  choristers. 
On  account  of  this  generous  gift  the  church  came 
to  be  called  St.  Laurence  Poultney,  and  the  college 
was  generally  known  as  St.  Laurence  Poultney 
College.  We  would  add  that  the  church  was 
destroyed  in  the  Great  Fire  and  not  rebuilt;  its 
picturesque  burial-ground  remains.  Sir  John  also 
founded  a  chantry  for  three  priests  in  St.  Paul's 
Cathedral,  a  house  for  the  Carmelite  Friars  at 
Coventry,  and  built  the  Church  of  All  Hallows 
the  Less,  in  part,  as  we  are  told  by  Stow,  over  the 
arched  gateway  of  Cold  Harbour.  He  resided  for 
a  time  almost  within  a  stone's  throw  of  Laurence 
Poultney  Hill,  in  this  very  important  mansion  on 
the  bank  of  the  Thames,  the  name  of  which  is 
so  common  throughout  England,  and  has  been 
so  often  discussed.  Stow  tells  us  that  this  Cold 
Harbour,  the  most  famous  place  so  called,  already 
existed  in  the  thirteenth  year  of  Edward  II.,  that 
in  the  eighth  year  of  Edward  III.  John  Bigot  and 
Sir  John  Cosenton  sold  their  respective  moieties 
of  it  to  Sir  John  de  Pulteney  (by  whom  it  may 
have  been  rebuilt),  and  that  from  his  dwelling  there 
it  took  the  name    of  Poultney's  Inn.     Thirteen 


years  afterwards  he  disposed  of  it  to  Humfrey  de 
Bohun,  Earl  of  Hereford  and  Essex.  It  afterwards 
passed  through  many  vicissitudes.  Coming  into 
Royal  hands,  it  was  granted  in  the  year  1410  by 
Henry  IV.  to  his  eldest  son,  afterwards  Henry  V., 
and  nearly  a  century  afterwards  was  the  temporary 
residence  of  Margaret,  Countess  of  Richmond, 
mother  of  Henry  VII.  Here,  on  the  marriage  of 
Prince  Arthur  with  Catherine  of  Arragon,  she  enter- 
tained the  Lord  Mayor  and  other  civic  dignitaries. 
Given  to  the  Talbots,  Earls  of  Shrewsbury,  the 
sixth  Earl,  who  was  guardian  of  Mary  Queen  of 
Scots  for  fifteen  years  and  died  in  1590,  is  said  to 
have  taken  it  down  and  built  a  number  of  small 
tenements  on  the  site.  Bishop  Hall,  Ben  Jonson, 
Nash,  and  others  of  their  time,  refer  to  the  precinct 
as  a  privileged  place  for  debtors.  Thus  the  first 
named  in  his  Satires,  V.  L,  1598,  writes  as 
follows ; — 

Or  thence  thy  starved  brother  live  and  die, 
Within  the  cold  Coal  Harbour  sanctuary. 

It  SO  continued  until  the  special  privileges  which 
had  grown  up  in  connection  with  it  were  abolished, 
September  20,  1608,  in  the  second  charter  granted 
to  the  City  of  London  by  James  I.,  wherein  it  is 
described  as  the  **  inn  or  liberty  of  Cold  Herberge, 


otherwise  Cold  Harburgh,  and  Cold  Herburg 
Lane."  In  spite  of  what  the  chroniclers  tell  us, 
we  learn  from  views  that  the  river-front  of  the  old 
mansion  remained  in  part  until  the  Great  Fire.  The 
Watermen's  Company  established  themselves  here 
in  the  earlier  part  of  the  seventeenth  century,  and 
after  the  Fire,  built  their  Hall  on  the  south-west 
angle  of  the  site.  They  sold  it,  about  1776,  to  the 
proprietors  of  Calvert's,  which  already  appears  to 
have  occupied  the  adjoining  site  of  a  "great  brew- 
house  built  by  one  Pot "  in  the  sixteenth  century. 
This  long -established  brewery  is  referred  to  in 
Goldsmith's  lines : 

Where  Calvert's  butt,  and  Parson's  black  champagne. 
Regale  the  bloods  and  drabs  of  Drury  Lane. 

The  City  of  London  Brewery,  which  succeeded 
Calvert's,  now  occupies  the  site  of  Cold  Harbour, 
together  with  those  of  the  churches  and  burial- 
grounds  of  All  Hallows  the  Great  and  All  Hallows 
the  Less,  portions  of  which  remain. 

Sir  John  de  Pulteney's  other  residence  in 
London,  although  within  but  a  short  distance  of 
Cold  Harbour,  was  quite  a  distinct  property.  This 
was  the  house  on  the  west  side  of  Laurence 
Poultney   Hill   which   contained  the   crypt,   until 


lately  in  existence.  Stow,  when  writing  about 
the  Merchant  Taylors'  school,  calls  it  the  Manor 
of  the  Rose.  Sir  John  in  his  will  mentions  "  my 
principal  Messuage,  which  I  inhabit,  in  the  parish  of 
St.  Laurence  of  Candlewyk  strete,"  and  he  leaves 
it  to  his  widow  for  her  life,  provided  that  she 
remains  unmarried,  and  afterwards  to  their  only 
son,  William.  The  house  has  been  confused  with 
Cold  Harbour,  because,  like  that,  from  having 
been  associated  with  him,  it  was  called  occasionally 
Pulteney's  Inn.  How  it  acquired  its  later  appella- 
tion, "  The  Manor  of  the  Rose,"  is  an  open  question ; 
but  the  title  was  perhaps  associated  in  some  way 
with  a  curious  tenure  of  Cold  Harbour  to  which 
Stow  refers,  namely,  payment  of  a  rose  at  Mid- 
summer in  lieu  of  services.  Another  suggestion 
is  that  it  originated  in  some  party  distinction 
during  the  wars  of  York  and  Lancaster,  as  it  is 
called  the  Red  Rose  in  a  schedule  of  the  lands  of 
Edward  Stafford,  Duke  of  Buckingham. 

Be  this  as  it  may,  the  crypt  on  Laurence 
Poultney  Hill,  which  some  of  us  knew  so  well, 
had  formed  part  of  this  mansion  called  by  Stow 
the  Manor  of  the  Rose,  and  if  built  by  Sir  John 
de  Pulteney,  it  must,  from  its  style,  have  been  in 
the  earlier  part  of  his  career,  soon  after  1322,  when 



he  is  already  mentioned  as  a  citizen  of  London. 
In  the  fifteenth  year  of  Edward  III.  (1341)  Sir 
John  got  licence  to  crenellate,  that  is  to  fortify 
with  battlements  or  crenelles,  his  mansion  in 
London,  and  this  we  believe  to  have  been  the  house 
on  Laurence  Poultney  Hill,  for  the  sixteenth- 
century  illustrations  of  it  by  Van  den  Wyngaerde 
and  Agas  indicate  an  embattled  building.  At  the 
same  time  leave  was  granted  him  to  crenellate  his 
house  at  Cheveley  in  Cambridgeshire,  and  his 
famous  mansion  at  Penshurst,  Kent. 

In  the  sixth  year  of  Richard  II.,  1384,  the 
College  of  Corpus  Christi  at  the  Church  of  St. 
Laurence  Poultney,  having  come  into  possession 
of  this  their  founder's  house,  exchanged  it  for  the 
church  at  Napton  which  belonged  to  the  Earl  of 
Arundel.  Afterwards,  during  many  years,  while 
princes  and  nobles  were  holding  high  court  at  the 
neighbouring  Cold  Harbour,  we  hear  little  or 
nothing  of  De  Pulteney's  "principall  messuage." 
Then,  to  judge  from  results,  it  seems  to  have  been 
an  unlucky  possession,  several  of  its  owners  and 
occupiers  suffering  death  on  the  scaffold ;  but  this 
was  a  common  end  of  great  people  in  the  fifteenth 
and  sixteenth  centuries.  It  belonged  for  a  time  to 
William  de  la  Pole,  Duke  of  Suffolk,  who,  having 


been  banished  by  the  King,  was  cruelly  beheaded  at 
sea  in  1450,  his  dukedom  being  forfeited  or  falling 
into  abeyance.  One  of  the  treasonable  acts  of 
which  the  Commons  had  accused  him,  was  said  to 
have  taken  place  in  the  parish  of  St.  Laurence 
Poultney.  His  son,  John  de  la  Pole,  who  married 
Edward  IV. 's  sister,  was  re-created  Duke  of  Suffolk 
in  1463,  but  this  property  does  not  seem  to  have 
been  restored  to  him.  It  belonged,  however,  to  Jm 
son,  Earl  of  Lincoln,  at  the  time  of  his  attainder 
in  1483,  and  then  reverted  to  the  Crown,  being 
restored  in  1495  to  the  De  la  Pole  family  in  the 
person  of  Edmund  de  la  Pole,  Duke  of  Suffolk,  on 
whose  forfeiture  Henry  VII.  granted  it  in  1506  to 
Edward  Stafford,  third  Duke  of  Buckingham.  It 
was  this  nobleman,  of  great  wealth  and  illustrious 
descent,  who,  having  been  arrested  on  his  barge  on 
the  Thames  when  coming  to  London,  as  Hall  the 
chronicler  tells  us,  was  condemned  for  high  treason 
and  executed  in  1523,  and  who,  as  we  have  seen,  is 
enshrined  in  the  play  of  Henry  VIII.,  the  lines 
alluding  to  him,  which  we  have  quoted  on  a 
previous  page,  being  taken  almost  word  for  word 
from  Holinshed's  Chronicle. 

At  this  time  Charles  Brandon,  Duke  of  Suffolk, 
brother-in-law  of  the   King,  who  has  been  men- 


tioned  in  our  chapter  on  Southwark,  seems  already 
to  have  had  a  grant  of  the  estate,  but  if  so  he 
did  not  long  hold  it,  for  about  four  years  after  the 
execution  of  Buckingham  it  was  granted  by  the 
Crown  to  Henry  Courteney,  Earl  of  Devon  and 
Marquis  of  Exeter.  He  was  first  cousin  to  the 
King,  which  was  almost  enough  to  make  him 
a  suspected  person,  and  in  due  course  he  had  the 
not  unusual  fate,  being  beheaded  on  Tower  Hill 
in  1539.  The  last  great  nobleman  to  whom 
the  estate  belonged  was  Thomas  Radcliffe,  Earl 
of  Sussex,  who,  early  in  Queen  Elizabeth's 
reign,  sold  it  to  John  Hethe,  citizen  and  cooper. 
By  him  it  was  divided  shortly  afterwards  into 
two  moieties,  one  of  them  being  bought  by 
Richard  Botyl,  citizen  and  merchant  taylor,  and 
the  other  by  William  Beswicke,  citizen  and 

The  parcel  sold  to  Botyl  comprised  the  west 
gate-house,  a  long  court  or  yard,  the  winding 
stairs  at  the  south  end  of  the  said  court,  and  other 
portions.  All  this  was  conveyed  shortly  after- 
wards by  Botyl  to  the  Merchant  Taylors'  Company, 
he  having:  acted  in  the  transaction  as  their  con- 
fidential  agent.  The  part  sold  to  Beswicke  included 
the  remainder  of  the  mansion  and  the  whole  of  the 


garden,  which  must  have  been  chiefly  to  the  south 
of  it. 

The  Merchant  Taylors'  moiety,  with  an  opening 
into  Suffolk  Lane,  was  soon  afterwards  appropriated 
to  their  grammar  school,  and  continued  so  to  be 
used  until  in  the  Great  Fire  it  was  hopelessly 
damaged  by  the  flames.  Afterwards  rebuilt, 
perhaps  from  the  designs  of  Sir  Christopher  Wren, 
and  devoted  to  the  same  purpose,  it  was  pulled 
down  in  1875,  when  the  school  migrated  to  the 
old  Charterhouse. 

A  prominent  member  of  the  Merchant  Taylors' 
Company,  at  one  time  master,  was  Patience  Warde, 
afterwards  knighted,  who  appears  to  have  taken 
the  lead  in  the  arrangements  for  rebuilding  the 
schoolhouse,  and  held  the  office  of  Lord  Mayor  in 
1680.  The  other  part  of  De  Pulteney's  mansion 
had  passed  to  him  about  the  middle  of  the 
seventeenth  century.  He  occupied  this  build- 
ing, which,  like  the  school,  was  no  doubt  almost 
destroyed  in  the  Great  Fire,  and  having  no 
children,  left  his  property  on  Laurence  Poultney 
Hill,  which  he  says  in  his  will  cost  him,  "  building 
or  otherwise,"  upwards  of  £5000,  to  his  nephew 
John  Warde,  merchant,  who  was  also  knighted 
and  also  attained  the  highest  civic  office. 


In  course  of  time  the  Warde  estate  here  was 
inherited  by  that  branch  of  the  Warde  family 
which  has  long  been  settled  at  Squerries,  near 
Westerham.  It  included  3,  4,  and  5  Laurence 
Poultney  Hill,  and  Laurence  Poultney  Place, 
which  is  called  in  a  plan  attached  to  Noorthouck's 
History  of  London  (1773)  "  Sir  Patient  Ward's." 
In  1859  and  1860  the  estate  was  bought  by 
the  Merchant  Taylors'  Company,  they  having, 
it  was  said,  some  idea,  never  carried  out,  of 
extending  their  school  in  this  direction.  In  1894 
an  ominous  placard  announced  that  the  house 
containing  the  crypt  was  to  be  let  on  building 
lease.  Considerable  efforts  were  made  to  induce 
the  Merchant  Taylors'  Company  to  preserve  a 
relic  of  such  remarkable  interest,  which  was  quite 
sound  and  might  easily  have  been  built  over. 
However,  these  efforts  were  unavailing,  and  in 
the  course  of  that  year  the  whole  structure  was 
swept  away.  As  to  the  purpose  for  which  it  had 
originally  served,  the  writer  hazards  the  opinion 
that  the  principal  chamber  was  the  undercroft  of 
the  hall  of  the  mansion  known  successively  as 
Pulteney's  Inn  or  the  Manor  of  the  Rose,  and 
showed  its  ground  plan,  and  that  the  passages 
were  under  the  passages  separating  the  hall  from 


the  kitchen,  pantry,  etc.  In  that  case,  the  room 
to  the  right  would  have  been  beneath  the  buttery, 
or  beneath  a  small  parlour,  while  the  modern  stair- 
case, and  the  space  adjoining  it,  indicated  the 
position  of  other  offices.  Here  perhaps  also  there 
was  an  ancient  staircase,  giving  communication 
to  the  other  parts  of  the  building.  It  may  be 
mentioned  incidentally  that  crypts  beneath  town 
houses  were  common  in  mediasval  times,  and 
various  examples  existed  in  London  until  quite 
recently,  one  at  least  still  remains.  In  Hudson 
Turner  and  Parker's  Domestic  Architecture  of  the 
Middle  Ages,  we  are  told  how,  in  a  lease  of  Pack- 
man's Wharf,  Thames  Street,  made  in  1354-55, 
the  lessee,  Richard  Wyllesdon,  covenanted  to 
build  a  chief  dwelling-place  above  stairs,  viz.  a 
hall  40  feet  in  length  and  24  feet  wide ;  and  a 
parlour,  kitchen,  and  buttery,  as  to  such  a  hall 
should  belong,  taking  care  that  there  should  be 
cellars  7  feet  in  height  beneath  the  said  hall, 
parlour,  kitchen,  and  buttery.  The  materials  to 
be  used  in  the  building  generally  were  Maidstone 
stone  (presumably  Kentish  "  rag  ")  and  heart  of  oak. 
We  have  kept  for  the  end  of  the  chapter,  allusion 
to  the  removal  of  Christ's  Hospital  from  the  site 
of  the  old  convent  by  Newgate  Street,  which  re- 


suited  in  the  sale  and  clearance  of  the  land,  perhaps 
the  heaviest  blow  which  has  been  dealt  to  lovers 
of  old  London  for  many  years.  The  historical 
associations  of  the  precinct  were  many  and  varied, 
ranging  from  the  time  of  the  Grey  Friars  to  that 
of  S.  T.  Coleridge  and  Charles  Lamb,  whose  papers 
called  Recollections  of  Chris fs  Hospital^  and  Chris fs 
Hospital  Five-and'  Thirty  Years  Ago,  will  perhaps 
continue  to  give  pleasure  when  the  substantial 
school  buildings  now  erected  at  Horsham  have 
crumbled  to  decay. 

The  possessions  here  of  the  Franciscans  or 
Friars  Minors,  usually  called  the  Grey  Friars, 
are  described  in  a  manuscript  belonging  to  the 
Cottonian  collection  in  the  British  Museum,  which 
contains  a  register  of  those  who  were  buried  in 
the  church  and  cloister,  a  description  of  the  convent 
and  of  its  various  benefactions,  and  several  other 
documents,  such  for  instance  as  a  detailed  account 
of  the  Friars'  water  supply,  starting  from  the  point 
where  the  pipe  entered  the  convent,  tracing  it 
along  Holborn,  up  Leather  Lane,  and  then  to  the 
open  country  on  the  north-west,  where  the  water 
was  gathered  in  a  little  stone  building  {domuncula 
lapidea),  which  of  late  years  had  been  entirely  lost 
sight  of,   until  the   present  writer   was  fortunate 


enough  to  identify  it  with  a  conduit  or  well-head 
still  existing  at  the  back  of  a  house  in  Queen 
Square,  Bloomsbury. 

We  learn  that  the  Franciscans  first  came  to 
England  in  1224 ;  they  were  nine  in  number,  and 
five  of  them  remained  at  Canterbury,  founding 
there  the  first  English  Franciscan  house.  The 
other  four  came  to  London,  where  they  stayed  for 
a  few  days  with  the  Black  Friars  or  Dominicans, 
and  afterwards  secured  a  house  on  Cornhill.  In 
the  following  summer,  John  Twyn,  citizen  and 
mercer,  settled  them  on  land  by  Newgate,  which, 
because  of  the  Franciscan  vow  of  poverty,  was 
vested  in  the  Commonalty  of  London  for  the  use 
of  the  Friars.  By  subsequent  donations  the  site 
of  the  convent  grew,  the  last  gift  of  land  recorded 
in  the  Cotton  manuscript  having  been  made  in  the 
year  1353.  It  seems  not  to  have  reached  the  City 
wall,  nor  did  the  western  corner  of  Newgate  Street 
and  what  is  now  called  King  Edward  Street  ever 
come  into  the  hands  of  the  Friars. 

The  building  of  the  original  church  was  carried 
on  during  most  of  the  thirteenth  century ;  but  in 
1306  Queen  Margaret,  second  wife  of  Edward  I., 
having  given  a  considerable  sum  for  the  purpose, 
a  much  larger  church  was  begun,  to  which  Queen 



Isabella,  Queen  Philippa,  and  other  great  person- 
ages contributed ;  the  fabric  seems  to  have  been 
finished  in  1348.  The  glazing  of  the  windows  took 
place  later,  and  the  stalls  were  added  at  the  expense 
of  Margaret,  Countess  of  Norfolk,  about  1380. 

After  the  Dissolution  the  convent  was  granted 
by  the  king  to  the  City  authorities  as  a  hospital  for 
poor,  sick,  and  impotent  persons,  while  the  church, 
under  the  name  of  Christchurch,  became  parochial. 
The  hospital  of  Henry  VIII.  was  re-founded  as 
a  school  by  Edward  VI.  in  1553,  ten  days  before 
his  death.  The  old  Grey  Friars'  buildings  were 
damaged  in  the  Great  Fire,  and  the  church  was 
rebuilt  by  Wren  about  the  year  1680,  but  shorn 
of  more  than  half  its  former  size.  It  had  been  no 
less  than  300  feet  long  and  89  feet  wide,  covering 
all  the  ground  now  occupied  by  Christchurch, 
Christchurch  Passage,  and  the  present  disused 
burial-ground.  Mr.  E.  B.  S.  Shepherd,  an  authority 
on  the  subject,  says  that  some  notion  of  the  appear- 
ance of  the  great  church  of  the  friars  may  be  gained 
from  the  existing  nave  of  the  Austin  Friars'  church 
near  Old  Broad  Street,  the  immediate  neighbour- 
hood of  which  we  have  already  visited.  The  bases 
of  three  of  the  buttresses  on  the  south  side  were 
uncovered  some  years  ago  and  described  in  vol.  v. 


of  the   Journal   of  the    -London   and  Middlesex 
Archaeological  Society, 

Christ's  Hospital  contained  all  the  site  of  the 
Grey  Friars'  convent,  except  the  ground  occupied 
by  their  church.  The  governors  had  also  extended 
their  boundaries  largely  to  the  north  and  west, 
taking  in  the  site  of  the  City  wall  and  ditch  lying 
between  their  property  and  St.  Bartholomew's 
Hospital  on  the  north,  and  on  the  west  also  the 
site  of  the  City  wall,  together  with  that  of  the 
Giltspur  Street  Compter  beyond  it. 

The  ground  plan  of  the  Grey  Friars'  great 
cloister  remained  until  the  end,  together  with  a 
few  of  the  mediaeval  cloister  arches  on  the  south 
side,  and  along  what  is  now  Christchurch  Passage 
the  friars  passed  to  and  fro  for  hundreds  of  years, 
this  having  been  the  ancient  way  between  church 
and  cloister.  The  other  buildings  of  various  dates 
were  very  picturesque,  the  facade  to  the  south 
being  an  admirable  specimen  of  Wren's  work.  A 
piece  of  it  from  Christchurch  Passage  is  shown  in 
our  illustration  of  the  school  entrance.  The  stone 
tablet  beneath  the  statue  of  Edward  VI.  had  an  in- 
scription which  told  us  that  this  building  had  been 
erected  at  the  cost  of  Sir  Robert  Clayton  in  1682. 
The  treasurer's  house,  still  standing,  for  a  short  time. 


with  its  ample  garden  intact,  is  full  of  charm. 
There  were  few  prettier  interiors  of  its  kind  than 
that  of  the  court- room ;  while  the  great  hall, 
although  comparatively  modern,  was  a  fine  struc- 
ture which  looked  its  best  from  the  open  railings 
in  Newgate  Street,  especially  when  the  playground 
in  front  was  occupied  by  groups  of  Blue -Coat 
boys  in  their  quaint  costume.  To  the  interest  and 
beauty  of  these  buildings  the  writer  felt  bound  to 
bear  witness  before  a  committee  of  the  House  of 
Commons ;  and  he  will  always  remember  with  a 
pang  of  regret  the  time-hallowed  precinct  now 
almost  utterly  effaced.  One  knows,  however,  the 
enormous  monetary  value  of  land  in  London,  and 
that  the  authorities  of  Christ's  Hospital  were  bound 
to  do  the  best  they  could  on  behalf  of  the  young 

Out  of  evil  sometimes  good  may  come.  The 
excavations  which  will  of  necessity  take  place  on 
the  site  now  cleared  of  buildings  can  hardly  fail  to 
add  much  to  our  knowledge  of  the  Roman  wall  of 
London,  for  those  of  its  foundations  which  still 
exist  will  be  laid  bare  along  the  whole  line  of  it, 
from  the  north  side  of  Newgate  to  King  Edward 



'The  whole  great  ward  of  Farindon,  both  infra  and  extra,  took 
name  of  W.  Farindon,  goldsmith,  alderman  of  that  ward,  and  one  of 
the  sheriiFs  of  London  in  the  year  1281." — J.  Stow  (1598). 

The  ward  which  gives  a  title  to  this  chapter  con- 
tains all  the  part  of  London  lying  immediately 
west  of  the  old  City  wall.  It  includes  the  parishes 
of  St.  Bartholomew  the  Great  and  St.  Bartholomew 
the  Less,  West  Smithfield,  St.  Sepulchre's,  St. 
Andrew's,  St.  Dunstan's-in-the-West,  and  St. 
Bride's,  and  early  became  of  sufficient  wealth  and 
importance  to  have  its  share  in  the  municipal 
government.  In  the  year  1393  it  was  divided 
from  the  parent  ward  of  Farringdon  Within,  and 
shortly  afterwards  John  Fraunceys  was  elected  its 
first  Alderman — an  important  reform  effected  at 
the  same  time  being  the  appointment  of  Aldermen 
for  life  ;  before  this  they  had  been  elected  annually. 



A  glance  at  old  plans  will  show  us  that  up 
to  the  end  of  the  sixteenth  century  much  of 
the  northern  part  of  this  ward  was  still  by 
no  means  thickly  populated.  The  first  district 
which  we  shall  visit  was,  like  Christ's  Hospital, 
the  precinct  of  a  great  religious  house.  The 
Priory  of  Austin  Canons  in  West  Smithfield, 
dedicated  to  St.  Bartholomew,  was  begun  in  the 
year  1123,  and  in  1133  the  king  granted  it  a 
charter  of  privileges.  The  founder,  by  name 
Rahere,  and  perhaps  of  Frankish  origin,  had  fre- 
quented the  dissolute  court  of  William  Rufus,  and 
Stow  speaks  of  him  quaintly  as  *'  a  pleasant- witted 
gentleman,  therefore  in  his  time  called  the  King's 
Minstrel."  Be  this  as  it  may,  not  earlier  than 
1120,  having  journeyed  to  Rome,  he  contracted 
fever,  and  during  convalescence  vowed  that  he 
would  make  a  hospital  "yn  recreacion  of  poure 
men."  The  apostle  St.  Bartholomew  was  said  to 
have  appeared  to  him  afterwards  in  a  vision,  and  to 
have  desired  the  building  of  a  church  also,  indicat- 
ing Smithfield  as  the  site.  Accordingly,  on  his 
return  to  England,  he  founded  the  priory  with  its 
church  and  the  hospital,  presiding  over  the  latter 
for  some  years.  He  then  retired  into  the  priory, 
where  he  died  in  1144  and  was  buried  on  the  north 


side  of  the  altar  of  the  grand  old  priory  church,  now 
known  as  St.  Bartholomew  the  Great.  An  ancient 
recumbent  effigy  of  him  under  a  Perpendicular 
canopy  is  still  to  be  seen  in  its  original  position. 

At  the  dissolution  of  religious  houses  the  choir 
was  reserved  as  a  parish  church,  the  nave  which 
had  been  used  for  that  purpose  being  pulled  down, 
and  its  site  turned  into  a  churchyard.  All  the 
rest  of  the  ground  and  buildings,  together  with  the 
rights  pertaining  to  the  priory,  were  sold  by  the 
King  to  Sir  Richard  Rich,  then  Speaker  of  the 
House  of  Commons.  Afterwards,  as  Lord  Rich, 
he  converted  the  prior's  lodging  into  his  town- 
house,  and  lived  there  when  Lord  Chancellor. 
Henry  II.  had  granted  to  the  prior  and  canons  the 
privilege  of  holding  an  annual  fair  at  Bartholomew- 
tide,  but  it  seems  to  have  been  in  existence  pre- 
viously. To  this  fair  resorted  clothiers  and  drapers 
not  only  from  all  parts  of  England  but  from  foreign 
countries,  who  here  exposed  their  goods  for  sale, 
stalls  being  set  up  within  the  priory  churchyard, 
the  gates  of  which  were  locked  at  night.  The  site 
is  called  Cloth  Fair  to  this  day.  By  the  reign  of 
Queen  Elizabeth  it  had  ceased  to  be  commercially 
important,  but  became  a  great  pleasure  fair,  the 
three   days  being  extended  to  fourteen,  and  the 


place  of  assemblage  being  gradually  transferred  or 
extended  to  Smitbfield.  The  fair  used  to  be  opened 
by  the  Lord  Mayor,  and  on  these  occasions  it 
was  customary  for  him,  while  passing  Newgate  on 
horseback,  to  refresh  himself  with  "  a  cool  tankard 
of  wine,  nutmeg,  and  sugar,"  handed  to  him  by  the 
keeper  of  Newgate,  a  practice  which  in  1688 
proved  fatal  to  Sir  John  Shorter,  whose  horse 
took  fright  while  he  was  in  the  act  of  drinking, 
and  gave  him  a  fall  from  which  he  died  soon 
afterwards.  In  1708  the  period  of  the  fair  was 
again  limited  to  three  days.  By  slow  degrees  it 
dwindled  away,  but  was  not  finally  abolished  until 
1855.  Morley,  in  his  Memoirs  of  Bartholomew 
Fair,  says,  "The  sole  existing  vestige  of  it  is 
the  old  fee  of  three  and  sixpence  still  paid  by  the 
City  to  the  rector  of  St.  Bartholomew  the  Great 
for  a  proclamation  in  his  parish."  The  streets 
within  the  old  precinct  of  the  religious  house  still 
retain  an  old-fashioned  air ;  some  of  the  pictur- 
esque houses  evidently  date  from  the  earlier  part 
of  the  seventeenth  century,  if  not  before,  but  they 
are  fast  disappearing.  On  No.  22  Cloth  Fair  is  a 
relic  which  carries  us  back  to  the  time  of  the 
Dissolution.  This  is  the  armorial  shield  of  Richard 
Rich,  raised  to  the  peerage  in  1547,  or  perhaps  of 


one  of  his  immediate  descendants.    It  is  surmounted 
by  a  coronet,  and  may  be  described  heraldically  as, 
gules,  a  chevron  between  three  crosses  botonnee 
or.     The  church  of  St.  Bartholomew  the  Great, 
after  getting  into  a  bad  state  of  dilapidation,  has 
of  late  years  been  elaborately  restored.     The  ac- 
quisition by  the  authorities  of  St.  Bartholomew's 
Hospital  of  a  piece  of  the  ground  lately  occupied 
by  the  Blue-Coat  School  will  lead  sooner  or  later 
to  a  general  reconstruction  of  Rahere's  foundation, 
and  the  church  of  St.   Bartholomew  the  Less  is 
fated  soon  to  disappear.     It  is  within  the  boundary 
of  the  hospital,   and   has   a   Gothic   tower   much 
modernised  which  contains  one  or  two  interesting 

Leaving  this  classic  neighbourhood,  we  will  now 
revisit,  alas  !  only  on  paper,  a  delightful  house  of 
entertainment,  the  old  Bell,  on  the  north  side  of 
Holborn,  one  of  many  formerly  to  be  found  in  that 
thoroughfare ;  it  survived,  however,  to  be  the  last 
galleried  inn  on  the  Middlesex  side  of  the  river. 
The  following  brief  account  of  it  was  written  when 
the  building  still  remained  intact,  being  founded 
on  a  careful  examination  of  original  documents 
relating  to  the  property. 

The  earliest  mention  of  this  house  which  appears 



in  the  deeds  is  on  the  14th  of  March  1538,  when 
WilHam  Barde,  for  £40,  sells  a  messuage  with 
garden  called  the  Bell,  in  the  parish  of  St.  Andrew, 
Holborn,  to  Richard  Hunt,  citizen  and  girdler. 
This  Richard  Hunt,  who  died  in  1569,  gave  thirty 
sacks  of  charcoal  yearly  for  ever,  as  a  charge  on 
the  property,  to  be  distributed  on  St.  Thomas's 
Day  to  thirty  poor  persons,  now  represented  by  an 
annual  payment  of  £2  :  5s.  from  the  ground  land- 
lords to  St.  Andrew's  parish.  In  a  deed  poll  of 
1605  it  is  described  as  being  "in  the  suburbes  of 
the  cittie  of  London,  between  the  tenement  some- 
time of  John  Davye  on  the  east,  and  a  tenement 
heretofore  of  the  Prior  and  convent  of  the  late 
dissolved  Pryorie  or  Hospitall  of  our  Ladie  without 
Bishopsgate  on  the  west ;  one  head  thereof  ex- 
tending upon  the  Kinges  high  waye  of  Holborne, 
and  the  other  head  thereof  upon  the  garden  of  Elie 
place," — the  London  house  of  the  Bishops  of  Ely, 
the  chapel  of  which,  dedicated  to  St.  Etheldreda, 
still  exists.  As  shown  in  Agas's  well-known  plan, 
drawn  probably  about  the  year  1590,  the  garden  of 
Ely  House  extended  as  far  as  Leather  Lane  and  a 
considerable  distance  along  it,  leaving  only  space 
for  the  houses  in  Holborn  with  their  enclosures, 
of  which  the  Bell  seems  distinctly  to  be  shown. 


Even  as  late  as  1799  the  space  behind  them  was 
still  open.  After  passing  through  various  hands, 
in  1679-80  the  property  came  into  the  possession 
of  Ralphe  Gregge,  whose  grandson  Joseph  finally 
parted  with  it  to  Christ's  Hospital  in  1722.  The 
front  part  of  the  Bell  was  at  that  time  subdivided, 
for  it  is  described  as  **  All  that  messuage  or  tene- 
ment known  by  the  name  or  sign  of  the  Bell,  with 
all  the  erections  or  stables  thereupon  erected  and 
built,  and  all  and  singular  other  the  appurtenances 
thereunto  belonging,  and  likewise  all  those  two 
other  tenements,  on  either  side  next  adjoining  to 
the  first-named  messuage,  and  fronting  the  High 
Street  of  Holborn — all  which  said  three  messuages 
were  formerly  one  great  mansion  house  or  inn, 
commonly  known  by  the  name  of  the  Bell  or  Blew 
Bell  Inn." 

About  two  years  before  the  sale  to  Christ's 
Hospital,  the  part  of  the  premises  facing  Holborn 
had  been  rebuilt,  and  on  them  were  placed  the 
sculptured  arms  of  the  Gregges  quartered  with 
those  of  Starkyes.  They  remained  on  the  house 
until  its  final  destruction  in  1897,  and  are  now  in 
the  Guildhall  Museum.  It  seems  that  the  owners 
of  the  Bell  were  descended  from  the  Gregges  of 
Bradley,    Cheshire,    one    of    whom    had    married 


Anne,  co-heiress  of  Richard  Starkye,  of  Stretton. 
Sir  Humphrey  Starkey,  Chief  Baron  of  the 
Exchequer  in  1486,  is  thought  to  have  belonged 
to  this  family.  The  date  of  the  rebuilding  is  not 
recorded  in  any  deed,  but  may  perhaps  be  indicated 
from  the  fact  that  at  the  time  of  the  sale  the  land- 
lord of  the  Bell  was  James  Trinder,  and  that  care- 
fully incised  on  a  brick  near  a  first-floor  window 
which  faced  the  yard  was  the  name  G.  Trinder,  and 
date  1720.  For  their  kindness  in  allowing  him  to 
examine  the  deeds  mentioned  above,  the  writer 
should  record  his  obligation  to  the  authorities  of 
Christ's  Hospital. 

It  may  here  be  remarked  that  the  earlier  deeds 
do  not  inform  one  whether  or  not  the  house 
was  originally  used  as  an  inn  "for  the  receipt  of 
travellers."  But  in  1637  it  was  undoubtedly  so  used, 
for  John  Taylor  in  his  Carriers  Cosmographie  says 
that  "the  Carriers  of  Wendover  in  Buckingham- 
shire do  lodge  at  the  Bell  in  Holborne,"  and  that 
"  a  Post  Cometh  there  every  second  Thursday  from 
Walsingham."  Towards  the  end  of  the  seventeenth 
century  coaches  were  plying  from  here  to  Berk- 
hamstead,  Hampstead,  and  Hendon,  and  waggons 
to  Faringdon  and  Woodstock.  From  that  time 
until  long  after  the  advent  of  railways  the  Bell 


continued  to  carry  on  the  same  quiet  trade,  fre- 
quented by  gentlefolks  and  commercial  men  of  the 
higher  class,  and  used  as  a  house  of  call  for  coaches, 
waggons,  and  carriers.     In  the  earlier  part  of  the 
nineteenth   century  the  landlord  was  Mr.   C.   R. 
Tinson,  who  seems  to  have  done  a  capital  posting 
business ;   his  account -book  is  before  me,  which 
records   the   prices   paid  for   various   post-chaises 
ranging  from  £40  to  £25  each.     About  1836  the 
coaching  business  at  the  Bell  was  in  the  hands 
of  Messrs.    Home,   the  most  famous  coach   pro- 
prietors   in     London    except    William    Chaplin. 
Then,     or    soon    after    this    time,    it    passed    to 
Mr.  William  Bunyer,  who  had  married  Tinson  s 
daughter   and    succeeded   him  as   landlord.      The 
Bunyers  were  an  old  inn -keeping  family ;   one  of 
them  had  kept  the  Jerusalem  Tavern,  Clerkenwell, 
in  the  latter  part  of  the  eighteenth  century.     The 
last  landlord  of  the  Bell,  Mr.  A.  C.  Bunyer,  was 
bom  here ;  a  little  sketch  of  him  appears  in  one  of 
our  illustrations.     As  late  as  1884  the  old  house 
retained  somewhat  of  its  connection  with  coaching. 
Mr.    William   Black  thus   introduces   it   into   his 
Strange  Adventures  of  a  Phaeton  :  **  Now  from  the 
quaint   little   yard  which   is    surrounded   by   frail 
and  dilapidated  galleries  of  wood  that  tell  of  the 


grandeur  of  other  days,  there  starts  a  solitary 
omnibus,  which  daily  whisks  a  few  country  people 
and  their  parcels  to  Uxbridge  and  Chalfont  and 
Amersham  and  Wendover."  This  faint  echo  of 
the  coaching  days  had  latterly  died  out,  but  to  the 
end  the  stables  and  covered  space  at  the  back  were 
constantly  occupied,  the  situation  being  convenient 
for  various  persons  who  used  to  drive  in  from  the 
suburbs  to  transact  their  business. 

A  few  words  on  the  architectural  features  of 
the  old  house  will,  we  hope,  not  be  considered 
superfluous.  The  Bell  was  of  the  usual  type  of 
galleried  inns  (although  smaller  than  many),  a  type 
which  came  perhaps  originally  from  the  East 
and  was  at  one  time  common  on  the  Continent. 
Approached  through  a  narrow  gateway,  and  a 
passage  under  the  front  building,  the  total  length 
from  the  street  to  the  back  was  not  much  over 
a  hundred  feet.  The  ponderous  gate  had  its 
wicket,  with  a  grating  usually  closed  by  a  sliding 
panel.  Through  this  at  night  the  traveller,  having 
announced  his  presence  by  the  aid  of  a  lion-head 
knocker,  was  inspected,  and  no  doubt  might  be 
refused  admission  if  unlikely  to  prove  a  desirable 
inmate,  reminding  me  of  an  arrangement  common 
in  the  south  of  Spain  in  my  younger  days,  when  a 


long  string  fastened  to  the  latch  communicated 
with  a  convenient  spy -hole,  whence  the  servant 
having  asked  who  was  there,  paused  for  the 
customary  reply — "a  peaceable  person"  (gente  de 
paz) — ^before  opening  the  door.  The  inn  contained 
several  buildings  more  or  less  distinct,  though 
latterly  united  by  doors  and  passages.  To  begin 
with,  there  was  the  red  brick  structure  in  front 
with  its  coat  of  arms,  so  well  known  to  generations 
of  Londoners.  The  western  part  of  this,  latterly 
occupied  as  a  silversmith's  shop,  and  numbered 
124,  was  quite  independent  of  the  inn,  and  to  it 
belonged  the  attic,  shown  in  views  from  the  street, 
and  forming  a  fourth  story.  Perhaps  the  quaintest 
feature  about  the  interior  of  the  front  building 
was  the  inn  staircase  with  its  panelling  and  turned 
balusters.  A  recess  in  the  wall  facing  the  yard 
contained  a  little  painted  statuette  of  the  first 
Napoleon,  dating  doubtless  from  the  time  when 
"Boney's"  marvellous  career  filled  men's  thoughts. 
On  entering  the  yard,  what  struck  one  was  its 
air  of  perfect  repose,  indescribably  soothing  after 
the  din  and  bustle  of  Holborn.  Immediately  to 
the  left,  or  on  the  west  side,  was  a  low  three-storied 
building  of  wood  and  plaster.  Not  ancient  as 
regarded  the  upper  portion,  though  the  beams  in 


the  ceiling  were  of  archaic  type,  the  whole  of  its 
basement  was  occupied  by  a  cellar  which  was  built 
of  stone  with  well-laid  masonry ;  doubtless  it  was 
the  oldest  part  of  the  Bell  Inn  that  survived  until 
our  time — a  remnant  of  the  "great  mansion  house'* 
mentioned  in  one  of  our  deeds,  which  might  have 
been  the  private  dwelling  of  some  high  personage. 
Next  to  the  building  on  this  basement  was  another 
of  the  same  material,  somewhat  higher,  and  having 
its  separate  staircase  like  the  last.     Time  had  here 
done  its  decaying  work,  and  had  caused  the  fabric 
to  lean  over  as  shown  in  our  drawing.     It  con- 
tained in  a  first-floor  room  a  wooden  mantelpiece 
with  a  pretty  group  of  figures  in  relief.      Then 
came   the   galleries   of  the   inn,    which   from   the 
picturesque  point  of  view  formed  its  chief  attrac- 
tion.    They  were  at  the  end,  and  running  partly 
up  the  east  side  of  the  yard,  not  on  three  sides  as 
is    often   the   case.      Beyond   and  beneath  was  a 
covered  space,  where  vehicles  could  stand  securely. 
This  galleried  portion  was  of  wood,  with  tiled  roof, 
dating  perhaps  from  the  reign  of  Charles  II.,  and 
may  have  replaced  a  more  ancient  building  similar 
in  style.      The   rooms  were  not  latterly  used  as 
bedrooms,  being  perhaps  too  chilly  for  us  degenerate 
mortals  of  the  present  day.     But  to  the  last  the 


galleries  had  a  cheerful  air,  and  were  adorned  with 
a  profusion  of  well-kept  plants  and  flowers.  Here 
was  the  old  coach  office ;  here  also  and  at  the  end 
was  the  stabling.  Next  to  the  galleries,  towards 
the  street  on  the  east  side,  stood  the  brick  frontage 
of  what  was  in  part  a  wooden  building,  the  ground 
floor  containing  the  coflee-room,  with  its  quaint 
portraits  and  green -curtained  partitions.  A  draw- 
ing of  the  room  was  made  on  September  24,  1897. 
In  the  following  week  the  furniture  and  fittings  of 
"the  old  Bell  Hotel,  No.  123  Holborn,"  were  sold 
by  auction,  and  shortly  afterwards  it  was  levelled 
with  the  ground. 

Our  view  of  the  front  of  this  inn  shows  on  the 
east  or  right-hand  side,  over  the  entrance  to  another 
courtyard,  the  statue  of  a  large  and  formidable 
black  bull  pawing  the  ground,  or  rather  his  pedestal, 
as  if  anxious  to  leap  down  and  attack  all  comers. 
This  was  the  sign  of  another  inn  evidently  of 
some  age,  and  mentioned  as  long  ago  as  1708  in 
Hatton's  New  View  of  London,  With  regard  to 
fact,  it  does  not  seem  to  have  been  famous,  but  un- 
doubtedly it  had  claims  to  a  high  place  in  fiction, 
for  it  must  have  been  here,  though  the  colour 
of  the  sign  is  not  mentioned,  that  Mr.  Lewsome 
was  *'  took  ill "  and  placed  under  the  tender  mercies 



of  Mrs.  Gamp  and  Betsey  Prig,  who  "nussed 
together,  turn  and  turn  about."  Looking  out 
through  a  window  at  this  inn  the  immortal  Sairey 
"was  glad  to  see  a  parapidge  in  case  of  fire,  and 
lots  of  roofs  and  chimney-pots  to  walk  upon"; 
and  in  this  yard,  when  convalescent,  the  invalid 
was  assisted  into  a  coach,  Mr.  Mould,  the  under- 
taker, eyeing  him  with  regret  as  he  felt  himself 
baulked  of  a  piece  of  legitimate  business.  The 
Black  Bull  descended  peaceably  from  his  pedestal 
in  1901,  and  the  old  house  to  which  he  was  attached 
did  not  long  survive  the  separation,  but  shortly 
afterwards  came  to  an  end.  Many  a  year  had 
passed  since  the  yard  resounded  with  the  neighing 
of  horses,  for  the  stables  at  the  back  disappeared 
and  the  galleries  were  rebuilt  and  turned  into  tene- 
ments long  before. 

Running  to  the  north  out  of  Holborn,  a  little 
west  of  the  site  of  these  inns,  is  Leather  Lane,  an 
ancient  thoroughfare  which,  if  narrow  and  dirty, 
might  also  a  few  years  ago  have  claimed  to  be  pic- 
turesque. Stow  calls  it  "  Lither  Lane,"  and  along 
this,  as  we  have  seen,  the  water-pipe  of  the  Grey 
Friars  was  carried,  until  reaching  the  fields  it  turned 
west  towards  th  e  mill  of  Thomas  de  Basynges.  Here 
now  are  the  headquarters  of  the  Italian  colony. 


members  of  which  earn  a  scanty  living  as  artists' 
models,  organ  grinders,  vendors  of  penny  ices,  and 
in  other  by-paths  of  industry.  On  a  Saturday 
evening  the  market  in  this  street  would  furnish 
fine  subjects  for  the  artist,  but  perhaps  it  would 
require  a  Rembrandt  to  do  them  justice.  Our 
illustration  of  Leather  Lane,  looking  south  towards 
Holborn,  represents  it  as  it  was  in  1897.  The 
following  year  all  the  houses  to  spectator's  right 
were  destroyed.  The  plastered  one  at  the  corner 
was  an  old  place  of  entertainment,  known  by  the 
sign  of  the  Horse  and  Groom.  According  to  a 
statement  on  the  board  outside  it  was  founded  in 
1730,  but  the  building  itself  was  clearly  very  much 
older.  Another  view  shows  the  back  of  this  house, 
access  to  which  was  obtained  through  an  alley 
or  passage  on  the  north  side  of  Holborn,  now 
altogether  obliterated,  other  houses  along  the 
Holborn  front  having  been  destroyed,  among  them 
another  old  coaching  and  posting  inn  called  the 
Bell  and  Crown. 

The  next  turning  out  of  Holborn,  west  of 
Leather  Lane  on  the  same  side,  is  Brooke  Street, 
which  derives  its  name  from  Fulke  Greville,  Lord 
Brooke,  "servant  to  Queen  Elizabeth,  counseller 
to  King  James,  and  friend  to  Sir  Philip  Sidney," 


for  here  was  his  London  residence.  In  Stow's 
time  it  had  been  **the  Earl  of  Bath's  inn,  now 
called  Bath  place,  of  late  for  the  most  part  new 
built."  In  1630  Brooke  House  was  fitted  up 
at  the  expense  of  the  Crown  for  the  French 
ambassador,  and  again  in  1658  representatives 
of  the  French  Government  were  lodged  there, 
and  "entertained  at  the  charge  of  his  High- 
ness," Oliver  Cromwell.  It  is  marked  in  Ogilby 
and  Morgan's  plan  of  1677  ;  but,  fashion  moving 
west,  Brooke  Street  (where  Chatterton  ended  his 
short  life)  and  Brooke  Market  were  formed  on 
the  site,  the  latter  described  by  Wheatley  and 
Cunningham  as  "  now  a  very  low  neighbourhood." 
The  writer,  however,  while  sketching  White  Hart 
Yard,  which  opens  into  it  through  a  passage  on  the 
west,  was  struck  chiefly  by  the  quiet  countrified 
air  of  the  old  wooden  house,  where  milk  "fresh 
from  the  cow"  may  still  be  bought,  also  eggs, 
butter,  and  other  articles  of  consumption,  and  a 
creditable  portrait  of  the  cow  herself  adorns  the 
front  of  the  establishment,  which  claims  to  have 
been  opened  in  1790. 

We  will  now  retrace  our  steps  along  Holborn, 
and  turn  down  Fetter  Lane  on  the  south  side. 
Passing  two  or  three  gabled  buildings  on  the  right 


hand,  to  which  reference  will  again  be  made,  we 
soon  come  to  the  site  of  another  of  the  old  coaching 
inns  with  which  this  neighbourhood  once  abounded. 
Marked  in  the  plan  of  1677,  an  interesting  glimpse 
of  it  in  its  palmy  days,  and  at  the  same  time  of  the 
manners  of  the  latter  part  of  the  eighteenth  century, 
has  been  given  by  the  great  Lord  Eldon.  His  story 
relates  to  the  year  1766  ;  he  shall  tell  it  in  his  own 
words :  "  After  I  got  to  town,"  he  says,  "  my 
brother,  now  Lord  Stowell,  met  me  at  the  White 
Horse  in  Fetter  Lane,  Holborn,  then  the  great 
Oxford  House  as  I  was  told.  He  took  me  to  see 
the  play  at  Drury  Lane.  When  we  came  out  of 
the  house  it  rained  hard.  There  were  then  few 
hackney  coaches,  and  we  got  both  into  one  sedan 
chair.  Turning  out  of  Fleet  Street  into  Fetter 
Lane  there  was  a  sort  of  contest  between  our 
chairman  and  some  persons  who  were  coming  up 
Fleet  Street,  whether  they  should  first  pass  Fleet 
Street  or  we  in  our  chair  first  get  out  of  Fleet 
Street  into  Fetter  Lane.  In  the  struggle  the 
sedan  chair  was  overset  with  us  in  it."  There  is 
a  well-known  coloured  print  by  J.  Pollard,  dated 
1814,  of  a  coach  called  the  Cambridge  Telegraph 
starting  from  the  White  Horse.  Not  much  more 
is  to  be  said  about  this  old  inn,  which  gradually 


fell  into  decay,  and  had  a  similar  fate  to  others  of 
its  class  already  described.  The  ground  floor  in 
front  was  used  for  the  purposes  of  a  tavern,  while 
the  rest  of  the  building  became  a  cheap  lodging- 
house,  known  as  White  Horse  Chambers.  Our 
sketch,  done  shortly  before  the  demolition  in 
1897-98,  shows  the  back  part  of  the  gateway  from 
Fetter  Lane,  a  convenient  covered  porch  or  re- 
cessed entrance  to  the  inn  being  on  spectator's 
right.  The  greater  part  of  the  fabric  seemed  to 
date  from  the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth  cen- 
tury, but  there  were  remains  of  an  earlier  wooden 
structure.  The  long  passage  running  parallel  with 
the  precinct  of  Barnard's  Inn,  communicated  with 
a  yard  which  had  ample  stables  at  the  back.  The 
scheme  of  rebuilding  involved  the  clearance  of  all 
the  old  property  between  Fetter  Lane  and  Fur- 
nival  Street,  the  greater  part  of  the  ground  being 
occupied  by  this  roomy  old  inn.  We  are  reminded 
that  other  establishments  with  this  sign  have 
flourished  and  disappeared  in  London.  It  was 
not  until  last  spring  or  summer  that  the  Old 
White  Horse  Cellars  were  involved  in  the  de- 
struction of  the  Bath  Hotel,  Piccadilly  (where 
Gustave  Dore  breathed  his  last),  having  survived 
the  New  White  Horse  Cellars   on   the  opposite 


side  of  the  street,  pulled  down  in  1884  with 
Hatchett's  Hotel,  of  which  they  formed  part.  If 
it  may  have  been  at  the  Old  White  Horse  Cellars 
that,  by  order  of  Mr.  Pickwick,  Sam  Weller 
took  five  places  in  the  coach  for  Bath,  it  was 
certainly  in  front  of  the  younger  establishment 
that  we  have  seen  Tom  and  Logic  bidding 
good-bye  to  Jerry  on  his  return  to  Hawthorn 
Hall ;  and  the  front  of  this  coach  office  is  also 
shown  in  a  caricature  by  George  Cruikshank 
called  "a  Piccadilly  Nuisance."  But  we  are 
digressing,  and  must  make  our  way  back  to 
Fetter  Lane. 

A  little  south  of  the  White  Horse  in  that 
street  there  stood  until  lately  a  most  picturesque 
greengrocer's  shop,  and  close  at  hand  on  the 
opposite  side  is  Nevill's  Court,  Fetter  Lane.  We 
will  not  trouble  ourselves  with  the  nomenclature 
of  this  quaint  alley  which  in  most  accounts  of  the 
district  is  derived  from  Ralph  Nevill,  Bishop  of 
Chichester  from  1222  until  1244 ;  but  although 
he  built  a  palace  on  the  west  side  of  Chancery 
Lane,  afterwards  occupied  by  the  Society  of 
Lincoln's  Inn,  and  we  have  thereabouts  hints 
of  episcopal  occupation  in  Bishop's  Court  and 
Chichester  Rents,  there  is  no  evidence,  as  far  as 


the  writer  is  aware,  of  his  having  owned  the  land 
which  now  forms  Nevill's  Court,  and  it  is  likely 
to  have  been  named  after  much  later  Nevills  who 
are  known  to  have  lived  in  Fetter  Lane.  Nevill's 
Court,  a  mere  passage  running  from  Fetter  Lane 
to  Great  New  Street,  is  interesting  to  us  because 
in  part  at  least  it  escaped  the  Great  Fire,  and  still 
has  quaint  old  buildings  with  open  space  in  front, 
formerly  well  inhabited,  one  of  them,  indeed,  occu- 
pied by  rather  famous  people.  Here  on  the  south 
side  stands  a  large  brick  house.  No.  10,  with  garden 
in  front,  which  from  its  appearance  would  seem  to 
have  been  built  in  the  latter  part  of  the  seven- 
teenth century,  and  as  long  ago  as  1744  passed  into 
the  hands  of  that  remarkable  sect,  the  Moravians 
or  United  Brothers,  who,  tracing  their  origin  to 
the  followers  of  John  Huss,  were  expelled  by 
persecution  from  Bohemia  and  Moravia  at  the 
beginning  of  the  eighteenth  century,  and  of  whom 
a  small  number  settled  on  the  estate  of  Count 
Zinzendorf  in  Saxony  about  1722,  he  himself 
joining  the  brotherhood  and  becoming  virtually 
its  leader ;  he  first  visited  London  in  1737. 
No.  10,  when  bought  by  the  Moravians,  was 
called  "the  great  house  in  Neville's  Alley." 
Used  for  many  years  as  their  mission  home  and 



minister's  house,  it  was  the  residence  of  Henry, 
55th  Count  Reuss,  and  of  the  Rev.  C.  J.  La  Trobe, 
who,  besides  being  eminent  as  a  minister  of  religion, 
was  also  a  musical  composer.  His  son,  Charles 
Joseph  La  Trobe,  the  first  Lieutenant-Governor  of 
Victoria,  was  born  there  in  1801.  The  earliest 
account  of  Moravian  missions  was  issued  from  this 
house  in  1790.  It  has,  we  fear,  seen  its  best  days, 
but  although  for  some  time  about  the  year  1897 
a  board  was  up  announcing  that  the  ground  would 
be  let  on  building  lease,  it  does  not  appear  at 
present  to  be  threatened  with  destruction.  The 
Moravians  have  their  chapel  hard  by,  with  access 
from  Nevill's  Court,  and  also  through  the  office  of 
their  church  and  mission  agency  at  32  Fetter  Lane. 
On  November  6,  1904,  the  162nd  anniversary  of 
the  congregation  was  celebrated. 

To  the  minds  of  those  not  belonging  to  the 
Moravian  community,  the  most  famous  place  in  or 
about  London  with  which  they  have  been  con- 
nected is  Lindsey  House,  Chelsea,  once  the  home 
of  the  ducal  family  of  Ancaster,  which  was  bought 
by  Count  Zinzendorf  in  1750  and  remodelled,  a 
chapel  with  minister's  house  being  built  and  a 
burial-ground  laid  out  at  the  back  on  part  of 
the  grounds  of  Beaufort  House,  another  ancient 



Chelsea  mansion.  The  Count  planned  an  important 
Moravian  settlement  there,  but  for  some  reason  the 
scheme  fell  through.  After  a  time  Lindsey  House, 
having  been  re-sold,  was  divided  into  several  dwell- 
ings, occupied  during  the  last  century  by  several 
men  of  mark,  among  them  the  two  Brunels,  father 
and  son,  and  J.  A.  M.  Whistler.  The  burial-ground 
is  still  held  by  the  Moravians. 

The  "  great  house  "  in  Fetter  Lane  is  the  most 
important  one  to  be  found  there,  but  an  older 
block  of  buildings  is  that  at  the  north-east  corner, 
now  numbered  13,  14,  and  15.  With  plastered 
walls  and  projecting  upper  storeys,  they  might 
have  been  built  at  any  time  between  the  middle  of 
the  sixteenth  and  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth 
century,  and  an  examination  of  old  plans  confirms 
the  notion  of  their  antiquity,  for  it  is  clear  that  the 
fire  of  1666,  although  it  raged  close  at  hand,  spared 
this  particular  angle.  The  quaint  little  gardens 
still  remaining  in  front  doubtless  helped  to  isolate 
it.  Before  quitting  the  immediate  neighbourhood 
of  Fetter  Lane,  we  might  mention  that  an  old 
house.  No.  16  in  this  street,  had  the  folio  wing- 
inscription,  the  chief  statement  of  which  was 
accepted  as  true  by  Sir  Leslie  Stephen :  "  Here 
liv'd   John   Dryden,    ye   Poet,    Born    1631,    Died 



1700.  Glorious  John."  It  stood  near  the  south 
end,  by  Fleur-de-Lis  Court,  and  was  pulled  down 
in  1887. 

Fetter  Lane  runs  into  Fleet  Street,  and  we 
will  now  say  something  about  the  old  houses  of 
entertainment  in  this  historic  thoroughfare,  one 
of  the  main  connecting  links  between  the  City 
of  London  and  the  west  end.  Just  as  South wark, 
Bishopsgate  Street,  Holbom,  and  Whitechapel 
were  famous  for  their  coaching  and  posting  inns, 
Fleet  Street,  which  only  possessed  one  historic 
hostelry  of  this  kind,  namely,  the  Bolt-in-Tun, 
was  for  a  long  time  the  headquarters  of  taverns 
and  coffee-houses,  where  fops  and  students,  men 
of  letters  and  men  of  fashion,  met  and  enjoyed 
that  "oblivion  of  care  and  freedom  from  solici- 
tude" which,  for  most  of  us,  have  such  powerful 
attraction.  To  mention  one  or  two  of  these 
old  houses  of  entertainment.  It  was  at  the  Devil 
Tavern  that  Ben  Jonson  held  sway  over  his 
literary  children ;  the  rules  of  his  club,  in  golden 
letters,  and  the  bust  of  Apollo,  are  still  preserved 
at  Messrs.  Child  and  Co.'s  banking-house.  The 
Mitre  Tavern  is  known  by  name  to  all  who  have 
read  BoswelFs  Life  of  Dr,  Johnson,  the  study  of 
which   forms    part   of  a   liberal   education.      The 


house  itself,  No.  39,  became  Macklin's  Poets' 
Gallery  in  1788,  and  lastly  Saunders's  Auction 
Rooms.  It  was  pulled  down  many  years  ago,  on 
the  rebuilding  of  Messrs.  Hoare's  banking-house, 
to  enlarge  the  site.  The  present  Mitre  Tavern 
in  Mitre  Court  has  no  connection  with  it.  The 
llainbow,  modernised  many  years  ago,  but  still 
flourishing,  was  opened  about  1656  by  James  Farr, 
previously  a  barber,  being  the  second  coffee-house 
established  in  London.  Next  year  he  was  pro- 
secuted by  the  "Inquest"  of  St.  Dunstan's-in-the- 
West  **  for  making  and  selling  a  sort  of  liquor  called 
coffee  as  a  great  nuisance  and  prejudice  of  the  neigh- 
bourhood." In  spite  of  this  he  soon  got  together 
a  good  connection,  among  his  customers  being  Sir 
Henry  Blount,  who,  we  are  told,  from  their  first 
introduction  frequented  coffee-houses,  "especially 
Mr.  Farr's,  at  the  Kainbowe."  In  the  next  chapter 
we  shall  point  out  how  Nando's,  early  established 
under  the  same  roof,  was  at  length  merged  in 
the  Rainbow.  It  now  only  remains  to  say  that 
here  the  Johnson  Club  has  more  than  once  dined 
wisely  and  well,  and  that  it  is  now  the  home  of 
"  Y®  Antient  Society  of  Cogers,"  which  here  carries 
on  its  miniature  parliament. 

Perhaps  even  more  famous  than  the  last-named 


house  of  entertainment  was  the  Cock,  on  the  north 
side  of  Fleet  Street,  near  Temple  Bar.  Samuel 
Pepys,  at  one  time  a  great  frequenter  of  taverns, 
records  several  visits  to  it,  the  most  memorable 
one  perhaps  being  that  on  23rd  April  1668,  when  he 
gave  his  wife  just  cause  for  jealousy  by  entertaining- 
Mrs.  Pierce  and  the  fascinating  Mrs.  Knipp  at  a 
lobster  supper,  and  afterwards  taking  boat  with 
**  Knipp"  at  the  Temple,  "it  being  darkish,  and 
to  Fox  Hall,  it  being  now  night."  The  sign 
was  originally  double,  as  is  shown  from  the 
following  advertisement  which  appeared  in  the 
Intelligencer  during  the  Plague  time  of  1665 : 
"This  is  to  certify  that  the  Master  of  the  Cock 
and  Bottle,  commonly  called  the  Cock  Ale- 
house at  Temple  Bar,  hath  dismissed  his  servants 
and  shut  up  his  house  for  this  long  vacation, 
intending  (God  willing)  to  return  at  Michaelmass 
time,  so  that  all  persons  who  have  any  accounts  or 
farthings  belonging  to  the  said  house  are  desired 
to  repair  thither  before  the  8th  of  this  instant  July 
and  they  shall  receive  satisfaction."  The  allusion 
to  farthings  has  reference  to  the  trade  token  issued 
by  this  house,  which  is  of  extreme  rarity,  only 
three  specimens  being  known.  The  inscription  on 
it  reads  thus  : — 


Obverse, — the  •  cock  •  ale  •  hovse  =  a  cock. 
Reverse, — at  •  temple  •  barr  •  1655  =  H.  M.  C. 

Strype  tells  us,  in  1720,  that  ''the  Cock  Alehouse, 
adjoining  to  Temple  Bar,  is  a  noted  publick-house." 
From  that  time  onwards  it  was  much  frequented, 
especially  by  lawyers,  but  most  men  who  have 
made  London  their  home,  and  are  past  a  certain  age, 
have  been  inside  the  long,  low  dining-room  with  its 
curtained  boxes,  and  know  the  Jacobean  chimney- 
piece  and  the  carved  and  gilded  chanticleer  over  the 
door,  which  might  have  been  fashioned  by  Grinling 
Gibbons.  These  relics  indeed  can  still  be  seen  at  the 
modern  Cock  on  the  opposite  side  of  Fleet  Street. 
It  is  to  Tennyson  that  we  owe  the  most  abiding 
memorial  of  the  old  tavern,  in  his  lines  called 
"  Will  Waterproofs  Lyrical  Monologue,  Made  at 
the  Cock,"  which,  as  Mr.  Percy  Fitzgerald  has 
well  said,  give  no  actual  description,  but  convey, 
with  extraordinary  charm,  an  idea  of  the  tone  of 
the  place,  and  of  the  fancies  it  is  likely  to  engender 
in  some  solitary  frequenter.  It  is  "only  a  great 
poet  who  could  evolve  a  refined  quintessence  from 
the  mixed  vapours  of  chops  and  steaks."  That 
the  late  Poet  Laureate  frequently  dined  here  when 
a  young  man  is  a  well-known  fact.     To  give  one 


instance.  In  the  Personal  Reminiscences  of  the  late 
Sir  Frederick  Pollock,  vol.  i.  p.  87,  he  says  that  he 
finds  recorded  in  the  year  1837,  "a  visit  to  the  pit 
of  the  Olympic  with  Spedding  and  Tennyson,  after 
having  dined  together  at  the  Cock  in  Fleet  Street." 
Another  famous  frequenter  of  the  place  was  Charles 

The  later  vicissitudes  of  the  Cock  need  not 
long  detain  us.  In  the  year  1867  there  was  a 
rumour  of  its  impending  destruction,  to  make  way 
for  the  approach  to  the  new  Law  Courts,  but  it 
remained  unchanged  till  1882,  when  the  buildings 
in  front  were  taken  down,  the  Cock,  like  several 
other  Fleet  Street  taverns  and  coffee-houses,  being 
at  the  end  of  a  long  passage.  Next  year  a  jury 
awarded  £19,698  for  the  freehold  and  goodwill  of 
the  house,  which  passed  into  the  hands  of  the 
Commissioners  of  Sewers,  and  in  1885  the  site 
was  purchased  by  the  authorities  of  the  Bank  of 
England,  who  have  here  established  their  branch 
bank.  They  did  not  at  once  begin  to  build,  the 
old  tavern  remaining  open  until  April  10,  1886, 
and  its  contents  being  sold  on  the  18th  of  May. 
One  of  the  tankards  was  presented  as  a  souvenir 
to  Lord  Tennyson.  The  only  house  of  the  kind 
left  in  thoroughly  genuine  condition  is  the  Cheshire 


Cheese,  Wine  Office  Court,  Fleet  Street,  which 
is  not  dissimilar  in  appearance,  and  equally  pictur- 
esque. Long  may  it  flourish  in  the  sympathetic 
hands  of  the  present  proprietor. 

We  shall,  perhaps  appropriately,  finish  our 
remarks  in  this  chapter  by  a  few  words  on  Temple 
Bar,  which,  until  the  year  1878,  was  such  a 
prominent  landmark,  forming  as  it  did  the  later 
limitation  of  the  City  ;  the  original  boundary  in  this 
direction  had  of  course  been  Ludgate.  In  the 
words  of  Strype  :  "  Temple  Bar  is  the  place  where 
the  freedom  of  the  City  of  London  and  the  Liberty 
of  the  City  of  Westminster  doth  part;  which 
separation  was  anciently  only  Posts,  Rails,  and  a 
Chain,  such  as  now  are  at  Holbourn,  Smithfield, 
and  Whitechapel  Bars.  Afterwards  there  was  a 
House  of  Timber,  erected  across  the  street,  with  a 
narrow  gateway,  and  an  entrance  on  the  south  side 
of  it  under  a  house."  This  gate,  of  which  a  drawing 
is  given  by  Hollar  in  his  large  map  of  London, 
came  to  an  end  shortly  after  not  in  the  Great 
Fire,  and  was  re-erected  from  the  designs  of  Wren. 
It  was  built  of  Portland  stone,  and  had  on  the  east 
side  statues  of  James  L  and  his  wife.  Queen  Anne 
of  Denmark,  and  to  the  west  those  of  Charles  I. 
and  Charles  II.     The  room  above  the  gateway  was 


latterly  hired  by  Messrs.  Child  and  Co.,  whose  bank 
adjoined  it.  An  old  custom  always  observed  at 
Temple  Bar  was  the  closing  of  the  gates  whenever 
royalty  had  occasion  to  pass  through  them  from 
the  court  end  of  London.  On  the  arrival  of  the 
royal  equipage  a  herald  sounded  a  trumpet,  another 
herald  knocked,  and  after  certain  words  had  been 
exchanged  the  gates  were  thrown  open,  and  the 
Lord  Mayor  handed  the  City  sword  to  his  Sovereign, 
who  graciously  handed  it  back.  This  or  a  similar 
ceremony  was  used  by  Cromwell  when  he  dined  in 
the  City  on  June  7, 1649  ;  the  last  observance  of  it 
was  on  the  occasion  of  the  visit  of  Queen  Victoria 
to  St.  Paul's  on  February  27,  1872,  when  she 
attended  the  thanksgiving  service  for  the  recovery 
of  his  present  Majesty  from  typhoid  fever. 

For  many  years  the  mangled  remains  of  those 
who  had  been  executed  were  exposed  at  Temple  Bar. 
Its  last  adornments  of  this  kind  are  said  to  have  been 
the  heads  of  Towneley  and  Fletcher,  Jacobites, 
which  fell  down,  the  first  in  April  1772,  and  the 
other  shortly  afterwards.  Towneley 's  head  appears 
to  have  been  secretly  removed.  "  I  remember  once," 
said  Dr.  Johnson,  "  being  with  Goldsmith  in  West- 
minster Abbey.  While  we  surveyed  the  Poets* 
Corner  I  said  to  him  : — 



"  Forsitan  et  nostrum  nomen  miscebitur  istis. 

**  When  we  got  to  the  Temple  Bar  he  stopped 
me,  pointed  to  the  heads  upon  it,  and  slily 
whispered : — 

"  *  Forsitan  et  nostrum  nomen  miscebitur  istis.'' " 

This  was  in  allusion  to  Johnsons  Jacobite 
tendencies,  which,  in  later  life  were  much  assuaged 
by  the  mollifying  influence  of  a  pension. 

It  was  found  at  length  that  Temple  Bar  was 
not  sufficiently  wide  for  the  requirements  of  modern 
traffic.  For  some  unknown  reason  also  the  news- 
papers took  to  decrying  this  finely  proportioned 
building  as  an  eyesore,  and  when  in  addition  its 
foundations  began  to  show  signs  of  weakness,  a 
result  of  the  removal  of  neighbouring  houses,  one 
felt  that  there  was  no  chance  of  pleading  with 
success  for  the  preservation  of  our  last  City  gate- 
way. It  was  taken  down  in  1878-79,  and  after  the 
stones,  which  number  about  a  thousand,  had  been 
lying  exposed  to  the  weather  for  nearly  ten  years, 
they  were  presented  to  Sir  Henry  Meux  and  re- 
erected  at  Cheshunt  so  as  to  form  an  entrance  to 
his  park  there,  part  of  the  once  regal  manor  of 
Theobalds.  The  "Temple  Bar  Memorial,"  which 
blocks  the  end  of  Fleet  Street  almost  as  much  as 



did  Temple  Bar,  was  erected  in  1880  to  mark  the 
old  site,  being  unveiled  by  the  late  Prince  Leopold, 
afterwards  Duke  of  Albany.  The  strange  creature 
guarding  its  summit  is  usually  called  "the  griffin," 
but  is  said  to  be  a  dragon  by  those  who  understand 
heraldic  zoology. 



''This  same  starved  justice  hath  done  nothing  but  prate  to  me  of  the 
wildness  of  his  youth. — I  do  remember  him  at  Clements'  Inn  like  a 
man  made  after  supper  of  a  cheese  paring," 

Shakespeare,  King  Henry  IV.  Part  II. 

The  division  of  our  book  into  chapters  is  one  mainly 
of  convenience,  for  the  various  subjects  referred  to 
are  sometimes  so  intimately  connected  that  it  is 
difficult  to  classify  them.  Thus  incidentally  we  are 
now  about  to  describe  two  old  buildings  both  in  or 
by  Fleet  Street,  and  both  long  used  as  taverns,  but 
also  very  much  connected  with  the  great  legal 
Societies  of  the  Temple. 

Most  of  those  who  care  for  the  architectural 
relics  of  old  London  are  familiar  with  No.  17 
Fleet  Street,  extending  over  the  Inner  Temple 
Gate,  which,  through  the  energetic  action  of  the 
London  County  Council,  aided  by  the  City  authori- 
ties, has  been   secured,  in  part  at  least,  from  de- 



struction.  With  the  exception  of  Crosby  Hall 
(unless  we  include  part  of  the  Charterhouse  build- 
ings) it  is  perhaps  the  oldest  house  in  the  City 
and,  from  its  artistic  features  alone,  well  worthy  of 
preservation.  Besides  it  has  an  interesting  history, 
and  one  not  easy  to  unravel.  I  shall  therefore 
venture  to  repeat  to  some  extent  what  was  said  by 
me  on  the  subject  in  articles  contributed  to  vols.  i. 
and  ii.  of  the  Home  Counties  Magazine, 

First  as  to  the  actual  structure.  The  house, 
until  a  few  years  ago,  occupied  a  considerable  space 
along  the  east  side  of  Inner  Temple  Lane,  but  the 
back  portion  with  one  staircase  had  already  been 
pulled  down  before  it  was  suggested  that  there 
should  be  an  attempt  to  save  the  far  more  interest- 
ing part  that  remains.  The  massive  rusticated 
arch,  facing  the  end  of  Chancery  Lane,  with  the 
Pegasus  of  the  Inner  Temple  on  the  spandrels, 
is  thoroughly  Jacobean  in  character,  as  are  the 
carved  wooden  panels  between  the  first  and  second 
floor  windows,  two  of  which  are  ornamented 
with  plumes  of  feathers ;  but  all  the  rest  of  the 
front,  as  it  now  appears,  is  of  comparatively  recent 
date.  Inside,  fortunately,  there  are  fragments 
which  prove  to  us  what  was  the  appearance  of  the 
original  building.      The   front   of  the  first  story, 


overhanging  the  ground  floor  and  archway  to  some 
extent,  but  not  so  much  as  at  present,  had  carved 
pilasters  at  the  sides,  and  two  bay  windows  with 
transoms,  which  were  divided  in  the  middle  by  a 
similar  pilaster.  The  second  story  projected  9^ 
inches  beyond  the  first,  the  bay  windows  being 
carried  up.  Here  again  a  fragment  of  a  carved 
pilaster  has  been  found,  and  remains  of  the  other  two 
are  probably  in  existence  behind  the  modern  house 
front.  There  is  a  view  of  the  building  with  the 
windows  unaltered,  which  appears  on  a  map  or  plan 
engraved  by  George  Vertue  in  1723,  and  on  another 
issued  by  Bowles  late  in  the  eighteenth  century. 

When  the  house  was  remodelled,  now  long  ago, 
the  old  front  was  completely  covered  and  concealed 
by  a  new  one,  brought  slightly  forward  and  pro- 
jecting equally  before  the  rooms  of  the  first  and 
second  floors,  the  bays  being  removed.  The 
present  flat  windows  were  inserted,  and  the  original 
panels  rearranged.  On  the  first  floor  there  is  a 
space  of  about  1  foot  9  inches  between  the 
old  front  and  the  present  one  The  top  story  or 
attic,  structurally  but  little  changed,  consists  of 
two  gables  with  their  tiled  roofs  shghtly  hipped. 
This  hipping  back,  however,  is  a  modern  alteration, 
as  is  proved  by  an  engraving  of  Prattent's  in  the 


European  Magazine  for  1786,  where  the  bay 
windows  have  already  disappeared,  but  the  points 
of  the  gables  are  not  hipped.  The  gables  stand 
back  about  7  feet  from  the  frontage  of  the 
second  floor ;  thus  there  is  a  platform,  which  in 
Prattent's  view  is  shown  protected  by  a  railing  with 
turned  balusters,  and  must  have  formed  a  pleasant 
adjunct  to  the  house ;  but  all  this  is  now  concealed 
by  a  screen  of  a  more  or  less  temporary  nature, 
covered  in  so  as  to  form  a  small  front  room.  The 
old  gabled  houses  near  St.  Dunstans  Church, 
numbered  184  and  185  Fleet  Street,  had  platforms 
of  a  similar  kind.  The  platform  or  gallery  of  the 
wooden  house  in  Bishopsgate  Street  Without  was 
mentioned  in  our  second  chapter. 

Passing  through  the  shop,  from  which  all  trace 
of  age  has  been  eliminated,  one  mounts  by  a  stair- 
case with  large  turned  balusters  to  the  first  floor, 
where  is  a  room  facing  the  street  and  occupying  the 
whole  width  of  the  house.  It  is  nearly  square, 
being  about  23  feet  in  length  from  east  to 
west,  about  20  feet  in  breadth  and  10  feet  6 
inches  high.  This  room  contains  two  features  of 
very  great  interest.  The  west  end  has  fine  oak 
panelhng,  while  its  frieze  or  cornice,  and  two 
carved   pilasters   of  the   same   material,  are  good 


examples  of  early  seventeenth  -  century  design, 
but  the  glory  of  the  room  is  the  plaster  ceiling 
elaborately  decorated.  Ornament  of  the  kind  so 
well  exemplified  in  this  ceiling  did  not  come  into 
fashion  in  England  until  the  time  of  Henry  VIII., 
being  first  produced  by  Italians  at  his  palace  of 
Nonsuch,  the  external  plaster  work  of  which  is 
mentioned  by  John  Evelyn  in  his  diary,  and  is 
also  shown  in  a  view  by  Hoefnagel.  The  first 
Englishman,  I  believe,  who  is  known  to  have 
practised  this  art  was  Charles  Williams,  who  in 
1547  offered  his  services  at  Longleat  to  supply 
internal  plaster  decorations  "after  the  Italian 
fashion,"  he  may  have  been  employed  at  Nonsuch. 
Our  English  plasterers  soon  learned  to  excel ;  they 
travelled  about  the  country,  and  most  houses  of 
importance  built  during  the  reigns  of  Elizabeth 
and  James  I.  were  partly  adorned  with  their  work. 
Some  of  the  late  Gothic  roofs  of  Henry  VII.  s 
reign,  with  their  radiating  ribs  and  pendants,  at 
first  no  doubt  helped  to  give  suggestions.  In  the 
ceilings,  however,  geometric  patterns  of  projecting 
ribs  as  a  rule  formed  the  basis  of  the  designs, 
which  soon  became  highly  varied,  emblems,  armorial 
bearings,  and  personal  devices  being  used  to  fill  up 
vacant    spaces.      At    first    the    ribs   were    plainly 


moulded  after  the  manner  of  groin  ribs,  but  later 
their  flat  surfaces  were  ornamented.  The  ceiling 
of  No.  17  Fleet  Street  is  of  this  kind.  In  what 
seems  to  have  been  the  centre  of  the  chief  design, 
enclosed  by  a  star-shaped  border,  are  the  Prince  of 
Wales's  feathers,  with  the  motto  "  Ich  Dien  "  on  a 
scroll  beneath,  and  the  letters  P.  H.  Surrounding 
the  centre  is  a  well-arranged  system  of  geometric 
patterns  with  appropriate  ornament.  Along  the 
south  side  of  the  room  a  series  of  small,  oblong 
panels  occur ;  on  one  of  them  are  the  arms  of  the 
Vintners'  Company — a  chevron  between  three  tuns. 
There  is  no  record  of  the  Vintners  having  been  con- 
nected with  the  Gate-house ;  but  perhaps  its  first 
owner  belonged  to  this  Guild,  for  we  know  that 
one  of  his  executors  —  Ralph  Marshe  —  was  a 
vintner.  The  ceiling  is  now  coloured  throughout, 
and  although  the  paint  has  no  doubt  been  renewed 
again  and  again,  and  the  delicacy  of  the  ornament 
is  therefore  somewhat  obliterated,  one  must  bear  in 
mind  that  there  is  here  something  of  the  original 
effect,  for  in  the  old  stucco  work  colour  and  gild- 
ing were  largely  employed.  Spenser  reminds  us  of 
this  in  his  well-known  lines  : — 

Gold  was  the  parget,  and  the  ceiUng  bright 
Did  shine  all  scaly  with  great  plates  of  gold. 



A  striking  characteristic  of  the  Fleet  Street  ceiling 
is  the  marvellous  tenacity  with  which  it  holds 
together,  although  in  parts  it  has  sunk  many  inches. 
This  is  owing  to  the  fine  quality  of  the  plaster,  far 
superior  to  any  now  produced,  perhaps  also  to  an 
admixture  of  hair  and  of  some  glutinous  substance. 
A  strip  of  decorative  plaster  work  at  the  east  end 
has  disappeared,  the  ceiling  in  this  part  being  now 
unadorned.  There  is,  however,  just  space  for 
sufficient  ornament  to  make  it  correspond  with  that 
which  is  opposite.  The  mantelpiece  of  wood  and 
marble,  at  the  east  end  of  the  room,  dates  from  the 
eighteenth  century,  which  is  also  the  case  with  the 
panelling  at  that  end.  The  panelling  on  the  south 
side,  although  not  precisely  similar,  is  also  of  the 
eighteenth  century ;  the  wall  here  is  partly  an 
external  one,  the  room  extending  over  the  Inner 
Temple  Gateway. 

But  it  is  time  to  turn  to  the  historical  associa- 
tions of  this  old  Gate-house.  That  part  of  the 
district  lying  between  Fleet  Street  and  the  Thames, 
which  is  called  the  Temple,  was  the  home  of  the 
Knights  Templars  in  London  from  1184  until  the 
early  part  of  the  fourteenth  century.  Not  long 
after  their  downfall  it  came  to  the  Knights  of  St. 
John  of  Jerusalem,  by  whom  the  Inner  and  Middle 


Temples  were  leased  to  the  students  of  the  Common 
Law.  No  change  in  this  tenure  took  place  when 
at  the  dissolution  of  religious  houses  the  property 
passed  to  the  Crown;  but  in  1608  James  I.,  by 
letters  patent,  granted  it  at  a  nominal  rent  to 
certain  high  legal  officials  and  to  the  benchers  and 
their  successors  for  ever.  There  is  a  tradition  that 
in  Wolsey's  young  days,  when  he  came  to  take 
possession  of  the  benefice  of  Lymington  in  Hamp- 
shire, Sir  Amyas  Paulet  clapped  him  in  the  stocks, 
and  that  during  his  Chancellorship  many  years 
afterwards,  in  revenge  for  the  indignity  which  had 
once  been  put  upon  him,  he  ordered  Paulet,  then 
treasurer  of  the  Middle  Temple,  not  to  quit  London 
without  leave,  and  so  the  latter  lived  in  the  Temple 
for  five  or  six  years.  To  propitiate  Wolsey,  when 
the  gate  was  restored  he  is  said  to  have  placed 
over  the  front  of  it  the  Cardinal's  arms,  hat,  and 
other  insignia.  This  tends  to  show  the  early  exist- 
ence of  the  Middle  Temple  Gate-house,  which  was 
rebuilt  by  Wren  as  it  now  appears  in  1684. 

The  Inner  Temple  Records  tell  us  how  at  a 
meeting  of  the  Temple  authorities  in  1538-39,  "  hit 
was  agreid  that  a  nue  gate  shalbe  made  comyng 
from  the  streitt  to  the  Tempell."  It  does  not 
appear,  however,  to  what  gate  this  applies.     In  the 


plan  of  London  attributed  to  Ralph  Agas,  which  is 
thought  by  the  best  authorities  to  have  been  pre- 
pared not  earlier  than  the  year  1591,  the  Middle 
Temple  Gate-house  and  Lane  are  marked  quite 
distinctly,  but  there  are  no  signs  of  an  Inner  Temple 
Gate-house.  Nevertheless  one  probably  existed 
before,  as  seems  proved  by  the  Inner  Temple 
Records,  a  Calendar  of  which  has  within  the  last 
few  years  been  printed  under  the  able  editorship  of 
the  late  Mr.  F.  A.  Inderwick,  K.C.  It  therein 
appears  that  at  a  meeting  of  the  authorities  of  the 
Inner  Temple,  held  on  June  10, 1610,  John  Bennet, 
one  of  the  King's  sergeants-at-arms,  petitioned 
that  the  Inner  Temple  Gate  "  may  be  stopped  up 
for  a  month  or  six  weeks,  in  order  that  it  may  be 
rebuilt,  together  with  his  house  called  the  Prince  s 
Arms,  adjoining  to  and  over  the  said  gate  and  lane, 
and  that  he  may  jettie  over  the  gate  towards  the 
street."  He  seems  to  have  submitted  a  plan,  and 
offered  to  renew  the  gates  on  condition  that  he  had 
the  old  ones.  His  request  having  been  granted, 
the  work  was  soon  afterwards  carried  out. 

This  document  therefore  shows  clearly  the  age 
of  the  present  Gate-house,  and  the  circumstances 
under  which  it  was  built,  with  its  stories  "  jettying  " 
or  jutting  over  the   pavement   in   front.     It   also 


furnishes  an  explanation  of  the  plumes  of  feathers, 
outside  and  on  the  ceihng,  and  of  the  initials  P.  H., 
which  apply  to  Henry,  elder  son  of  James  I.,  and 
Prince  of  Wales  when  the  house  was  rebuilt,  and 
would  have  been  put  up  there  in  compliment  to 
him.  For  although  it  is  true  that,  strictly  speak- 
ing, a  plume  of  feathers  borne  in  a  coronet  repre- 
sents the  Prince's  badge  and  not  his  arms,  sufficient 
reason  for  their  existence  here  is  doubtless  supplied 
by  the  fact  that,  as  appears  from  the  above  extract, 
the  house  on  this  site,  even  before  the  present 
structure,  was  called  the  Prince's  Arms. 

There  is,  nevertheless,  a  strong  belief  that  this' 
house.  No.  17  Fleet  Street,  was  originally  the  office 
and  council  chamber  of  the  Duchy  of  Cornwall,  and 
the  reason  for  this,  apart  from,  or  in  addition  to,  the 
presence  of  the  plumes  of  feathers  and  initials, 
is  the  fact  that  seventeenth -century  documents 
mention  a  "Prince's  Council  Chamber"  in  Fleet 
Street.  One  with  this  heading  is  referred  to  in 
the  Calendar  of  State  Papers,  vol.  x.,  1619-23. 
Perhaps  even  more  important  is  a  proclamation 
dated  1635,  and  now  at  the  Record  Office,  which 
runs  thus  : — Our  pleasure  is  "  that  those  of  our 
subjects  who  seek  to  have  defective  titles  made 
good  shall,  before  Hilary  term  next,  repair  to  our 


now  Commissioners  at  a  house  in  Fleet  Street, 
where  our  Commissioners  for  our  Revenue  while  we 
were  Prince  of  Wales  did  usually  meet."  There 
are  also  copies  of  minutes  of  the  year  1617  referring 
to  "the  Counsell  Chamber  in  Fleete  Streete." 

It  should,  however,  be  said  that  careful  search  at 
the  Record  Office  and  at  the  present  Office  of  the 
Duchy  of  Cornwall  has  failed  to  reveal  a  single 
document  connecting  this  or  any  other  house  in 
Fleet  Street  with  Henry,  Prince  of  Wales,  whose 
death  had  occurred  in  1612,  while  no  records  of 
the  kind  referred  to  are  dated  before  the  year  1617. 
On  the  other  hand,  there  is  strong  reason  for 
supposing  that  the  Council  of  the  Duchy  of  Corn- 
wall, during  the  earlier  part  of  the  seventeenth 
century,  had  no  regular  office,  but  transacted  its 
business  in  various  hired,  leased,  or  lent  places. 
Thus  letters  and  minutes  of  1615  and  1616  were 
written  at  a  house  in  Salisbury  Court  (near  the 
bottom  of  Fleet  Street).  November  25,  1617,  is 
the  date  of  a  meeting  at  "the  Dutchie  House" 
which  is  mentioned  again  in  the  following  year, 
while  a  letter  of  February  22,  1619-20,  relating  to 
the  affairs  of  the  Duchy,  is  signed  at  Whitehall, 
and  in  1622  and  1623  papers  of  a  similar  kind  are 
dated  from    "the  Counsell  Chamber  at   Denmark 


House  in  the  Strand."  Some  documents  relating 
to  the  Duchy  were  issued  at  Windsor  and  other 
places  away  from  London.  If  the  Duchy  had 
possessed  a  house  of  its  own  for  the  transaction 
of  business,  that  house  would  have  been  sold  by 
the  Parliament  between  1646  and  1650  as  King's 
or  Prince's  forfeited  property,  or  at  least  would 
have  been  mentioned  in  the  careful  survey  of 
the  Duchy's  possessions  then  made  and  still  in 
existence.  But  there  is  no  record  forthcoming  of 
the  Duchy  having  either  owned  or  rented  a  house 
in  Fleet  Street.  The  most  that  we  can  say  at 
present,  pending  the  possible  discovery  of  further 
documents,  is  that  on  and  off,  from  1617  to  1625, 
the  Commissioners  of  the  Duchy  of  Cornwall, 
afterwards  until  1641  or  later  the  Commissioners 
of  the  King's  Revenue,  met  at  an  office  in  Fleet 
Street,  and  that  this  office,  lent  or  hired,  may  per- 
haps have  been  at  times  the  handsomely  decorated 
first-floor  room  of  the  Inner  Temple  Gate-house, 
built  by  John  Bennett  on  the  site  of  his  previous 
house  called  the  Prince's  Arms  ;  the  sign  being 
accounted  for  by  the  fact  that  until  the  latter  part 
of  the  eighteenth  century  the  plan  of  numbering 
houses  not  having  been  invented,  each  one  had 
its  special  designation.     I  would  add  that   it  was 


not  an  uncommon  practice  at  the  time  to  work 
into  the  design  of  a  stuccoed  ceiling  the  armorial 
bearings  of  Royal  personages.  Thus,  to  give  but 
one  instance,  on  the  ceiling  of  the  well-known 
house  formerly  at  the  north-east  corner  of  Shoe 
Lane  and  denominated  Holborn  or  Old-bourn  Hall 
were  (within  just  such  a  starlike  border  as  that 
containing  the  Prince's  feathers  in  Fleet  Street)  in 
the  centre  the  Royal  arms  encircled  by  a  garter, 
with  the  initials  of  James  I.,  namely,  I.  R.,  and  a 
crown  above,  the  date  in  one  corner  being  1617, 
yet  this  was  certainly  never  more  than  a  manor 
house.  A  house  of  minor  importance,  which 
formerly  stood  in  Whitechapel,  was  decorated 
externally  with  the  Prince  of  Wales's  feathers  and 
other  insignia.  One  may  add  that  the  design  of 
the  Inner  Temple  Gate-house  has  sometimes  been 
attributed  to  Inigo  Jones,  partly  because  in  1610 
he  was  appointed  Surveyor  to  Henry,  Prince  of 
Wales  ;  but  as  the  house  was  built,  not  for  the 
Prince,  but  for  John  Bennett,  this  fact  does  not 
increase  the  probability  of  its  being  his  work. 

The  Gate-house  was  from  the  first  a  freehold  in 
the  parish  of  St.  Dunstan's-in-the-West.  At  the 
same  time,  owing  to  the  facts  that  it  stood  over 
the  Inner   Temple   Lane  and   extended  for  some 


distance  along  its  east  side,  the  authorities  of  the 
Inner  Temple  had  certain  rights  over  it.  Un- 
fortunately no  early  deeds  of  this  house  are  forth- 
coming, nor  can  much  allusion  to  it  be  found  until 
the  eighteenth  century.  Long  before  this,  however, 
there  was  a  shop  here,  apparently  forming  part  of 
the  structure.  Proof  of  its  existence  is  found  in 
the  title-page  of  Thomas  Middleton's  Comedy,  A 
Mad  World  my  Masters,  a,  second  edition  of 
which,  published  in  1640,  was  "to  be  sold  by  James 
Becket  at  his  Shop  in  the  Inner  Temple  Gate." 

In  1665  the  back  part,  if  not  the  whole  building, 
must  already  have  been  used  as  a  tavern,  with  a 
sign  which  it  retained  until  quite  late  in  its  history. 
During  that  year  one  Monsieur  Anglers  advertises^ 
his  famous  remedies  for  stopping  the  plague,  to  be 
had  at  Mr.  Drinkwater's  at  the  Fountain,  Inner 
Temple  Gate,  "down  the  passage."  The  Inner 
Temple  Records  give  various  references  to  the 
house,  chiefly  relating  to  the  power  of  control 
over  the  windows.  Thus  among  the  Bench  order;* 
is  one  of  1693,  that  the  owner  should  attend,  to 
make  out  his  title  to  the  windows  of  the  Fountain 
Tavern  that  look  into  the  Temple.  Afterwards 
the  windows  were  blocked,  but  on  petition  of 
Edward    Dixon,   the   vintner,    who   acknowledged 



**  the  right  of  the  Society  in  permitting  the  lights 
of  the  house  that  are  next  the  Inner  Temple 
Lane,"  the  obstruction  was  removed,  and  "  in  con- 
sideration thereof,"  Dixon  agreed  to  pay  2s.  6d.  a 
year  rent,  and  to  set  apart  for  the  benchers  the 
use  of  the  best  room  in  his  house  on  the  occasion 
of  any  public  show.  This  may  be  accepted  as  a 
proof  that  the  room  on  the  first  floor,  with  the 
fine  ceiling  and  panelling  shown  in  our  illustration, 
then  formed  part  of  the  tavern,  for  it  must  have 
been  the  best  room  in  the  house  facing  Fleet 
Street.  There  are  various  records  showing  that 
the  authorities  of  the  Inner  Temple  exercised  their 

From  Browne  Willis's  account  I  learn  that, 
having  first  tried  the  Bear  in  the  Strand  and  the 
Young  Devil  Tavern  in  Fleet  Street,  the  Society 
of  Antiquaries,  or  perhaps  one  should  say  those 
who,  after  a  long  interval,  were  engaged  in  the  task 
of  reviving  it,  about  the  year  1709,  met  at  the 
Fountain  Tavern,  as  one  "  went  down  into  the  Inner 
Temple  against  Chancery  Lane."  In  1739  their 
place  of  assembly  was  the  no  less  historic  Mitre. 

During  many  years  Fleet  Street  was  noted  for 
exhibitions  of  various  kinds,  and  the  old  Gate-house 
was  formerly  occupied   by   one,   a   short   account 


of  which  may  here  be  appropriately  inserted. 
Perhaps  the  most  famous  waxwork  exhibition 
before  Madame  Tussaud's  was  that  first  formed 
by  Mrs.  Salmon,  which  in  the  days  of  Queen  Anne 
was  to  be  seen  at  the  "  Golden  Ball "  in  St.  Martin's, 
near  Aldersgate.  The  Spectator  for  April  2,  1711, 
No.  28,  has  the  following  sentence: — "It  would 
have  been  ridiculous  for  the  ingenious  Mrs.  Salmon 
to  have  lived  at  the  sign  of  the  trout ;  for  which 
reason  she  has  erected  before  her  house  the  figure 
of  the  fish  that  is  her  namesake."  Further  allusions 
to  the  lady  will  be  found  in  No.  31,  and  in  No.  609 
of  the  same  publication.  The  waxworks  migrated 
to  Fleet  Street,  where  they  were  shown  near  the 
Horn  Tavern,  now  Anderton's  Hotel.  A  handbill 
describing  them  mentions  "  140  figures  as  big  as 
life  all  made  by  Mrs.  Salmon,  who  sells  all  sorts 
of  moulds  and  glass  eyes,  and  teaches  the  full 
art."  The  death  of  the  original  proprietor  is  thus 
recorded  : — **  March,  1760,  died  Mrs.  Steer,  aged  90, 
but  was  generally  known  by  the  name  of  her  former 
husband,  Mr.  Salmon.  She  was  famed  for  making 
several  figures  in  wax,  which  have  long  been  shown 
in  Fleet  Street."  The  collection  was  then  bought 
by  Mr.  Clark  or  Clarke,  a  surgeon,  of  Chancery 
Lane  (said  to  have  been  the  father  of  Sir  Charles 


Mansfield  Clarke,  M.D.),  and,  when  he  died,  his 
widow  continued  the  exhibition  under  the  name  of 
Salmon.  In  1788  the  waxworks  were  some  little 
distance  west  of  the  Horn  Tavern,  at  an  old  house. 
No.  189  Fleet  Street,  the  site  of  which  was  after- 
wards occupied  by  Praed's  Bank.  At  the  beginning 
of  1795  Mrs.  Clark  shifted  her  quarters  to  No.  17 
over  the  way.  Her  removal  is  announced  as  follows 
in  the  Morning  Herald  for  January  28,  1795  (not 
1785,  as  we  are  told  by  J.  Timbs) : — "  The  house 
in  which  Mrs.  Salmon's  Waxworks  have  for  above  a 
century  been  exhibited  is  pulling  down  ;  the  figures 
are  removed  to  the  very  spacious  and  handsome 
apartments  at  the  corner  of  the  Inner  Temple  Gate, 
which  was  once  the  Palace  of  Henry,  Prince  of 
Wales,  the  eldest  son  of  King  James  the  First,  and 
they  are  now  the  residence  of  many  a  royal  guest 
Here  are  held  the  Courts  of  Alexander  the  Great, 
of  King  Henry  the  Eighth,  of  Caractacus,  and  the 
present  Duke  of  York.  Happy  ingenuity  to  bring 
heroes  together  maugre  the  lapse  of  time  I  The 
levees  of  each  of  these  persons  are  daily  very 
numerously  attended,  and  we  find  them  all  to  be 
of  very  easy  access,  since  it  is  insured  by  a  shilling 
to  one  of  the  attendants."  At  the  door  was  placed 
the  figure  on  crutches  of  a  well-known  person,  Ann 


Siggs  by  name,  and,  according  to  J.  T.  Smith,  if  a 
certain  spring  were  trodden  on,  the  counterfeit  pre- 
sentment of  Mother  Shipton  kicked  the  astonished 
visitor  when  he  was  in  the  act  of  leaving.  J.  Timbs 
and  C.  T.  Noble  both  say  that  Mrs.  Clark  died  in 
1812  at  an  advanced  age,  but  in  the  parish  tithes- 
book  I  find  the  name  at  No.  17  three  years  later. 
In  1814  Mrs.  "Biddy"  Clark  is  replaced  by  William 
Reed  or  Read.  Next  year  the  name  of  Clark  is 
seen  again,  but  in  the  fourth  quarter  "Biddy"  is 
changed  to  "  Charlotte."  The  following  year  Reed's 
name  returns,  and  so  ends  the  Clark  connection. 
I  would  add  that  the  apocryphal  statement  now  on 
the  front  of  the  house,  that  it  was  "formerly  the 
palace  of  Henry  VIII.  and  Cardinal  Wolsey," 
probably  grew  in  part  out  of  the  more  modest  claim 
that  it  was  "  once  the  palace  of  Henry,  Prince  of 
Wales,"  in  part  out  of  the  tale,  already  referred  to, 
of  Wolsey's  arms  having  been  placed  on  the  old 
Middle  Temple  Gate-house. 

We  have  reached  the  time  when  Mr.  Reed 
became  tenant  of  No.  17  in  place  of  Mrs.  Clark, 
and  we  can  now  gather  fresh  information  from 
documents  at  the  Inner  Temple,  which  prove  that 
after  Mrs.  Clark's  time,  the  house,  or  part  of  it,  was 
known  by  its  old  sign,  as  the  Fountain  Tavern.     In 


1823  a  petition  was  presented  to  the  Benchers  by 
Mr.  James  Sotheby,  and  in  their  note  of  his  petition 
he  is  described  as  "  owner  of  the  Fountain  Tavern, 
heretofore  called  the  Prince's  Arms — part  whereof 
is  built  over  the  Gateway."  A  nominal  rent  was 
paid  for  the  use  of  windows  looking  on  to  Inner 
Temple  Lane,  and  at  Lady  Day,  1823,  the  Society's 
account-book  has  the  following  entries: — "Fountain 
Tavern  3s.  9d.,  Mr.  Reed  Is.  6d.,"  which  prove 
clearly  that  there  were  then  two  separate  tenants. 
From  this  and  other  documents  it  seems  probable 
that  during  the  time  of  the  waxworks  the  house 
was  divided,  and  that  part  continued  to  be  used  as 
the  Fountain  Tavern.  For  more  than  sixty  years 
a  hairdressing  business  has  been  carried  on  here,  the 
present  occupant  being  Mr.  Carter. 

Before  quitting  altogether  the  subject  of  No.  17 
Fleet  Street,  I  should  like  to  say  a  few  words 
about  Nando's  Coffee-house,  and  its  supposed 
connection  with  this  building.  We  all  know  what 
is  told  about  Nando's  in  books  of  London  topo- 
graphy, namely,  that  it  was  at  the  east  corner  of 
Inner  Temple  Lane,  which  implies  that  it  was  at 
the  Inner  Temple  Gate-house.  Timbs  says  posi- 
tively that  No.  17  Fleet  Street  "was  formerly 
Nando's,    also    the    depository   of   Mrs.    Salmon's 


Waxwork."  Peter  Cunningham  also  places  Nando's 
at  the  east  corner  of  Inner  Temple,  and  subsequent 
writers  have,  I  think,  invariably  copied  the  state- 
ments of  these  two  authorities  on  the  subject,  except 
Mr.  Bellot,  who  has  seen  my  article.  No  one  ex- 
plains the  name,  which  was  probably  a  contraction 
for  Ferdinand's,  or  Ferdinando's  ;  it  being  much  the 
fashion  to  call  a  coffee-house  after  the  name  of  the 
owner  or  occupant,  as  Tom's,  Dick's,  etc.  One 
calls  to  mind  also  how  the  name  of  Sir  Hans  Sloane's 
servant,  Salter,  at  Chelsea,  was  transformed  into 
Don  Saltero  when  he  started  a  coffee-house  there. 
Nando's  Coffee-house  in  Fleet  Street,  which 
existed  in  1697,  and  perhaps  some  years  earher, 
had,  for  about  a  century,  a  considerable  reputation. 
It  may  be  noted  that  Bernard  Lintot  the  famous 
pubhsher,  of  whom  it  has  been  written. 

Some  country  squire  to  Lintot  goes, 
Enquires  for  Swift  in  verse  and  prose. 

published  various  books  **  from  the  Cross  Keys  next 
Nando's  Coffee-house,  Temple  Bar."  Many  years 
afterwards  Nando's  was  frequented  by  Lord  Chan- 
cellor Thurlow,  when  a  briefless  barrister,  the  charms 
of  the  punch  and  of  the  landlady's  daughter  render- 
ing it  at  that  time  popular,  and  here  Thurlow's 


skill  in  argument  obtained  for  him,  from  a  stranger, 
the  appointment  of  junior  counsel  in  the  famous 
ease  of  Douglas  v.  the  Duke  of  Hamilton. 

The  evidence  indicating  the  exact  position  of 
this  historic  coffee-house  will  be  found  in  a  Further 
Report  of  the  Commissioners  for  enquiring  con- 
cerning Charities,  1823,  vol.  ix.  p.  283.  It  appears 
that  John  Jones  of  London  and  Hampton,  Esq., 
by  will  dated  March  26,  1692,  devised  certain  lands 
for  charitable  uses  in  connection  with  the  parish  of 
Hampton-on-Thames,  Middlesex,  and  arrangements 
for  carrying  out  testator's  wishes  were  entered  into, 
by  virtue  of  which  certain  deeds  were  executed. 
One  of  these  was  a  conveyance  of  two -fourth 
parts  of  and  in 

"  All  that  messuage  or  tenement  with  the  appurtenances 
situate  in  Fleet  Street  in  the  parish  of  St.  Dunstan-in-the- 
West  in  London,  and  containing  the  several  rooms  therein- 
after mentioned,  viz.  on  the  ground  story  a  kitchen  fronting 
Fleet  Street,  and  a  cellar  lying  behind  the  said  kitchen ;  in  the 
second  story  one  shop  fronting  towards  Fleet  Street,  one 
room  used  for  a  coffee-house  lying  behind  the  first  shop 
commonly  called  or  known  by  the  name  of  Nando's  Coffee- 
house with  an  entry  leading  out  of  the  said  street  into  the 
said  coffee-house,  one  room  adjoining  on  the  south  part  of  the 
said  coffee-house  and  lying  over  part  of  the  said  cellar  belong- 
ing to  a  messuage  or  tenement  called  or  known  by  the  name 
of  the  Rainbow  Coffee-house  "containing  from  north  to 
south  within  the  walls  16  feet,  and  from  east  to  west  11  feet 


little  more  or  less ;  on  the  third  story  one  dining-room  front- 
ing Fleet  Street,  and  one  back  room  or  chamber  lying  behind 
the  said  dining-room,  and  also  one  room  lying  in  the  west 
side  of  the  said  back  room  or  chamber,  some  part  over  and 
some  under  the  rooms  belonging  to  a  messuage  or  tenement 
then  or  late  in  the  tenure  of  Mary  Leslie,  widow,  and  con- 
taining from  north  to  south  15  feet,  and  from  east  to  west 
12  feet  little  more  or  less ;  in  the  fourth  story,  two  rooms  or 
chambers  lying  directly  over  the  said  room  or  chamber 
behind  it ;  in  the  fifth  story  two  other  rooms  or  chambers 
lying  directly  over  the  said  two  last-mentioned  rooms  ;  and  in 
the  sixth  or  uppermost  story  two  garrets  lying  over  the  two 
last-mentioned  rooms/"* 

The  property  was  to  be  held  m  trust  towards  the 
maintenance  of  a  schoolmaster  duly  qualified  to 
instruct  children  residing  at  Hampton  in  the 
English  and  Latin  tongues,  and  to  understand  the 
catechism.  The  Commissioners  report  that  the 
property  so  settled  consisted  in  January  1828  of 
one  moiety  of  a  house  in  Fleet  Street,  formerly 
Nando's  Coffee-house. 

A  satirical  print  called  the  "  Battle  of  Temple 
Bar"  illustrates  an  event  of  March  22,  1769,  when 
some  six  hundred  sober-minded  people,  merchants, 
bankers,  and  others  opposed  to  Wilkes,  set  out  from 
the  Guildhall,  headed  by  the  City  Marshall,  to  deliver 
an  address  at  St.  James's.  The  mob  attacked  them, 
took  possession  of  Temple  Bar,  and  drove  them  out 



of  their  carriages,  several  taking  refuge  in  Nando's. 
On  the  print  the  name  of  this  house  is  placed  over 
a  doorway,  which  agrees  in  position  as  nearly  as 
may  be  with  the  existing  entrance  of  the  Rainbow. 
Again,  to  repeat  two  only  of  several  similar  state- 
ments known  to  the  writer.  Hughson,  in  his 
account  of  London,  1807,  speaks  of  "the  Rainbow, 
or  Nando's  Coffee  House " ;  and  in  the  Every 
Night  Book,  or  Life  after  Dark,  1827,  by  the 
author  of  the  Cigar,  there  is  an  account  of  the 
Rainbow,  wherein  we  are  told  that  "this  tavern 
which  stands  near  the  Temple  Gate,  opposite 
Chancery  Lane,  in  Fleet  Street,  once  bore  the  title 
of  Nando's  as  well  as  that  of  the  Rainbow."  It 
is  to  be  hoped  after  this  accumulation  of  evidence 
as  to  the  true  position  of  Nando's,  future  writers 
will  cease  to  domicile  it  at  the  Inner  Temple  Gate- 

The  Rainbow  is  numbered  15  Fleet  Street. 
A  few  doors  west,  a  long  passage  formerly  led 
to  another  famous  old  coffee-house,  known  as 
Dick's  or  Richard's,  the  back  of  which  was  in 
Hare  Court,  Temple,  nestling  against  a  fine  old 
block  of  chambers,  and  overshadowed  on  the  east 
by  a  high  modern  structure  which  seemed  to  have 
got  in  there  by  mistake.     Hare  Court  is  described 


by  "  Elia "  with  less  than  his  usual  sympathy,  as 
"a  gloomy  churchyard-like  place  with  trees  and 
a  pump  in  it."  At  this  pump  he  had  often  drunk 
when  a  child,  and  the  contents  later  in  life  he 
recommends  as  "excellent  cold  with  brandy." 
Dick's  Coffee-house,  with  which  it  was  so  intimately 
connected,  stood  on  the  site  of  the  printing  office 
of  Richard  Tottel,  law  stationer  in  the  reign 
of  Henry  VIII.,  but  got  its  name  from  Richard 
Torner  or  Turner,  who  was  landlord  in  1680. 
From  the  days  of  Steele  and  Addison  many 
eminent  men  frequented  it.  In  1737  a  play 
called  The  Coffee-house,  by  the  Rev.  James 
MiUer,  was  performed  at  Drury  Lane  Theatre,  two 
of  the  characters  in  which  were  supposed  to  be 
aimed  at  Mrs.  Yarrow  and  her  daughter,  the 
former  being  then  landlady  of  Dick's ;  in  conse- 
quence the  Templars  among  whom  she  was 
popular,  went  in  a  body  and  damned  the  piece. 
Miller  in  his  preface  to  an  edition  of  it  published 
the  same  year  denied  that  Dick's  was  meant,  but 
his  frontispiece  was  an  engraving  of  the  interior 
of  this  very  coffee-house.  The  champions  of  Mrs. 
Yarrow  were  therefore  confirmed  in  their  previous 
belief,  and  henceforth  they  did  their  best  (or  worst) 
to  ruin  every  play  which  they  supposed   to  have 


been  written  by  Miller.  Dick's  Coffee-house  con- 
tinued to  flourish  until  late  in  the  nineteenth 
century,  being  during  its  last  few  years  in  the 
occupation  of  an  Italian.  In  front  it  was  a  wooden 
building,  as  can  be  seen  in  one  of  our  illustrations, 
the  back  was  really  half-timbered,  the  timbering 
concealed  by  plaster ;  inside,  the  appearance  was 
not  unlike  what  is  shown  in  the  frontispiece  of 
Miller's  play.  The  original  staircase  remained.  The 
whole  was  swept  away  in  1899,  together  with  Butter- 
worth's  old  shop,  which  stood  in  front  of  it  at  No.  7 
Fleet  Street.  The  seventeenth-century  chambers 
on  the  west  side  of  Hare  Court,  built  after  the 
fire  of  1678,  had  disappeared  some  time  previously. 
It  would  occupy  several  volumes  instead  of  a 
few  pages  to  describe  the  Inns  of  Court  adequately, 
and  that  work  has  already  been  attempted  again 
and  again.  We  all  know  that  they  are  four  in 
number.  Lincoln's  Inn,  still  distinguished  by 
beautiful  old  buildings,  runs  a  hard  race  for 
pre-eminence  with  the  Inner  and  the  Middle 
Temple : — 

Those  bricky  towres 
The  which  on  Themmes  brode  aged  back  doe  ryde. 
Where  now  the  studious  lawyers  have  their  bowers, 
There  whylome  wont  the  Templer  Knights  to  byde. 
Till  they  decayd  through  pride. 


Last,  not  least,  Gray's  Inn,  as  picturesque  as 
any  of  the  four,  will  always  be  remembered  from 
the  many  famous  men  who  have  been  connected 
with  it,  but  chiefly  perhaps  to  the  outer  world  as 
the  legal  foster-mother  of  Francis  Bacon,  and  as 
still  containing  a  colony  of  rooks  in  its  historic 
gardens.  We  wonder  why  the  authorities  have 
lately  pulled  down  that  north  wall  along  what 
used  to  be  called  the  King's  Road,  destroying  for 
ever  the  privacy  of  the  place,  the  air  about  it  of 
**rus  in  urbe"  which  constituted  its  great  charm. 
And  how  could  they  even  think  of  destroying  the 
delightful  house  in  Field  Court,  with  an  open 
gallery  like  an  Italian  loggia  below  ? 

Doubtless  to  lovers  of  the  past  the  Inns  of 
Court  are  not  quite  so  attractive  as  they  once 
were.  Quiet  old  buildings  have  been  too  often 
replaced  by  pretentious  modern  ones,  the  sun- 
dials look  bran  new,  the  Temple  fountain  has 
been  stuccoed  over.  Still  these  delightful  precincts 
remain  in  a  sense  intact,  and  are  not  likely  to  be 
encroached  upon.  It  is  far  otherwise  with  the  lesser 
legal  Inns  which  were  called  Inns  of  Chancery.  In 
the  time  of  Henry  VI.,  as  we  are  told  by  a  con- 
temporary writer,  there  were  no  less  than  ten  of 
them.     Stow,  at  the  end  of  the  sixteenth  century. 


speaks  of  the  Inns  of  Chancery  as  chiefly  occupied 
by  officers,  attorneys,  solicitors,  and  clerks,  who 
"  follow  the  Courts  of  the  King's  Bench  or  Common 
Pleas ;  and  yet  there  want  not  some  other,  being 
young  students  that  come  thither  sometimes  from 
one  of  the  Universities,  and  sometimes  immediately 
from  grammar  schools  ;  and  these,  having  spent 
some  time  in  studying  upon  the  first  elements  and 
grounds  of  the  law,  and  having  performed  the 
exercises  of  their  own  houses  called  Boltas  Mootes 
(disputations)  and  putting  of  cases,  they  proceed  to 
be  admitted  and  become  students  in  some  of  the 
four  houses  or  Inns  of  Court."  By  the  middle  of 
the  eighteenth  century  these  Inns  of  Chancery  had 
not  much  diminished  in  number ;  and  although 
gradually  the  intentions  of  the  original  founders 
came  to  be  altogether  ignored,  great  part  of  the 
buildings,  and  in  most  cases  the  societies  which  had 
become  virtually  their  possessors,  continued  to  exist 
until  quite  recently. 

An  Inn  of  Chancery  long  ago  disestablished  was 
Thavie's  Inn,  Holborn  Circus,  which  had  belonged 
to  Lincoln's  Inn,  and  was  sold  by  that  society  to 
a  Mr.  Middleton  in  1771.  The  north  end  of  it  was 
destroyed  in  forming  the  Holborn  Viaduct,  but  on 
the  remainder  of  the  site  there  is  still  a  double  row 


of  houses  called  by  the  name.  Furnival's  Inn,  also 
in  Holborn,  and  also  originally  attached  to  Lincoln's 
Inn,  became  after  about  1818  a  series  of  chambers 
wholly  unconnected  with  the  law.  Until  the  time 
that  it  ceased  to  be  an  Inn  of  Chancery  it  had  a 
fine  Gothic  Hall  with  timber  roof,  but  the  whole 
was  rebuilt  by  WiUiam  Peto,  the  contractor,  in 
1818-20.  At  No.  15  Furnival's  Inn,  on  the  east 
side  of  the  square,  Charles  Dickens  lived  in  1835, 
the  north  side  being  occupied  by  Wood's  Hotel. 
All  these  later  buildings  are  now  entirely  swept 

Another  Inn  of  Chancery  which  has  been 
obliterated  is  Lyon's  Inn,  an  appanage  of  the  Inner 
Temple.  Sir  Edward  Coke  was  reader  here  about 
1578,  and  for  two  succeeding  years ;  but  it  seems 
to  be  chiefly  associated  in  most  people's  minds  with 
the  victim  of  John  Thurtell,  murdered  in  1823  : — 

They  cut  his  throat  from  ear  to  ear. 

His  brains  they  battered  in ; 
His  name  was  Mr.  William  Weare, 

He  dwelt  in  Lyon's  Inn. 

It  was  sold  by  the  members  in  1863,  the  Inn  being 
shortly  afterwards  demolished,  and  the  Globe 
Theatre  built  on  its  site. 

There  were  two  houses  of  law  called  Serjeants' 


Inn,  which  cannot  be  classed  as  Inns  of  Chancery, 
but  certainly  require  a  few  words  of  notice.  They 
were  set  apart  for  judges  and  serjeants-at-law,  each 
justice  of  the  King's  Bench  or  Common  Pleas 
having  to  become  a  serjeant,  if  he  had  not  already 
done  so,  before  being  sworn  in  as  judge.  The  Fleet 
Street  precinct  appears  to  have  been  deserted  by 
the  Serjeants  in  the  course  of  the  eighteenth  century, 
but  still  exists  as  an  ordinary  Square.  The  second 
Serjeants'  Inn,  on  the  east  side  of  Chancery  Lane, 
was  formerly  called  Faryngdon  Inn,  after  the  person 
who  gave  his  name  to  the  wards  of  Farringdon,  and 
continued  to  be  used  until  the  dissolution  of  the 
Society  in  1876-77,  the  property  being  sold  early  in 
the  latter  year  for  £57,100,  and  the  proceeds  divided 
among  the  members ;  a  transaction  with  regard  to 
which  there  was  a  good  deal  of  adverse  comment. 
A  part  of  the  old  building  still  remains  on  the 
south  side  of  the  passage  between  Clifford's  Inn  and 
Chancery.  A  third  Inn,  used  by  the  Serjeants  in 
early  times,  was  called  Scroope's  Inn,  and  stood 
opposite  to  St.  Andrew's  Church,  Holborn,  but 
ceased  its  connection  with  the  lawyers  about  the 
end  of  the  fifteenth  century.  Before  quitting  this 
subject  I  would  add  that  the  badge  or  emblem  of 
the  now  extinct  Serjeants,  known  as  the  coif,  after 


going  through  various  changes,  was  finally  a  little 
frill  of  white  silk  round  a  black  patch  about  two 
inches  in  diameter,  which  represented  a  black  skull- 
cap and  was  fastened  on  to  the  wig.  It  is  said  that 
when  Sir  Fitzroy  Kelly  was  made  a  Serjeant  in 
order  to  become  Lord  Chief  Baron,  the  robe-maker 
had  sent  no  coif,  and  that  its  place  was  supplied  by 
the  Lord  Chancellor's  pen-wiper,  pinned  on  for  the 

We  all  know  the  street  front  of  a  grand  old 
gabled  building  close  to  the  site  of  Holborn  Bars, 
and  most  of  us  have  seen  the  charming  courtyards 
and  garden  at  the  back  of  it,  some  have  even 
peeped  into  the  hall,  with  its  open  timber  roof,  the 
date  1581  carved  on  a  corbel.  This  is  Staple  Inn, 
the  Principal  and  Ancients  of  which  were  the  first 
among  those  having  legal  rights  over  an  Inn  of 
Chancery  to  follow  the  example  of  the  Serjeants-at- 
law.  The  place  was  sold  in  1884  for  £68,000,  and 
by  an  unlooked-for  piece  of  good  fortune  it  came 
into  the  hands  of  the  Prudential  Assurance 
Company,  which  has  so  far  preserved  it  with  the 
utmost  care.  We  will  not  dwell  at  length  on  the 
history  of  Staple  Inn,  the  early  part  of  which  is 
indeed  somewhat  obscure.  Was  it  in  any  way 
connected    with    the    Merchants    of  the    Staple  ? 



For  this,  as  far  as  one  can  ascertain,  there  is  no 
authority  except  a  tradition  quoted  by  Sir  George 
Buc,  master  of  the  revels,  in  his  treatise  which  is 
appended  to  Howes's  edition  of  S tow's  Annales, 

When  we  come  to  the  building  as  an  Inn  of 
Chancery  we  are  still  doubtful.  Most  authorities 
consider  that  it  was  first  occupied  for  legal  purposes 
about  1415  ;  Mr.  Worsfold,  in  Staple  Inn  and  its 
Story,  puts  back  the  date  to  1378.  At  least  we 
know  that  in  the  twentieth  year  of  Henry  VIII. 
the  inheritance  of  Staple  Inn  passed  from  John 
Knighton  and  Alice  his  wife  to  the  Benchers  and 
Ancients  of  Gray's  Inn  ;  and  they  surely  must  have 
been  the  "  Gentlemen  of  this  House  "  commended 
by  Sir  George  for  **  new-building  a  fayre  Hall  of 
brick  and  two  parts  of  the  outward  Courtyards, 
besides  other  lodging  in  the  garden  and  elsewhere," 
and  thus  making  it  '*  the  fay  rest  Inne  of  Chancery 
in  this  Universitie."  During  the  reign  of  Queen 
Elizabeth  there  were  at  Staple  Inn  145  students  in 
term  time  and  69  out  of  term,  more  than  attended 
any  other  Inn  of  Chancery. 

The  management  of  Staple  Inn  was  in  the  hands 
of  a  Principal,  who  was  elected  every  third  year,  a 
Pensioner,  corresponding  as  regards  his  duties  with 
a  college  bursar,  and  a  Council  consisting  of  eleven 


Ancients  whose  number  was  kept  up  by  election 
from  the  junior  members.  There  was  also  a  Reader, 
chosen  by  the  members  from  three  whose  names 
were  submitted  by  Gray's  Inn.  In  1855  the 
number  of  Ancients  had  diminished  to  eight,  and 
there  were  twelve  Juniors. 

Among  the  famous  people  associated  with  Staple 
Inn  was  Dr.  Johnson,  who  moved  here  from  the 
still  existing  house  on  the  west  side  of  Gough  Square 
on  March  23,  1759,  and  wrote  that  very  day  to  his 
step-daughter.  Miss  Lucy  Porter,  announcing  the 
fact.  He  added,  "I  am  going  to  publish  a  little 
Story  Book,  which  I  will  send  you  when  it  is  out." 
This  was  Easselas,  Boswell  tells  us  that  he  "  wrote 
it,  that  with  the  profits  he  might  defray  the  expense 
of  his  mother's  funeral,  and  pay  some  little  debts 
which  she  had  left."  Isaac  Reed  the  Shakespeare 
commentator  was  also  once  a  resident,  having 
chambers  at  No.  11,  where  Steevens  corrected 
the  proof-sheets  of  his  edition  of  Shakespeare. 
Dickens  places  Mr.  Grewgious  in  Edxmn  JDrood 
at  No.  10,  where  over  the  door  are  the  date  1747 
and  the  initials  j  .p  which  refer  to  Principal  John 
Thomson.  Nathaniel  Hawthorne  during  his  first 
visit  to  London  "  went  astray  in  Holborn  through 
an  arched  entrance  over  which  was  Staple  Inn  : — 


in  a  Court  opening  inwards  from  this  there  was  a 
surrounding  seclusion  of  quiet  dwelling-houses,  with 
beautiful  green  shrubbery  and  grass  plots  in  the 
Court  and  a  great  many  sunflowers  in  full  bloom." 
He  finishes  a  charming  description  with  the  follow- 
ing words,  which  are  fortunately  still  true.  "  In  all 
the  hundreds  of  years  since  London  was  built  it  has 
not  been  able  to  sweep  its  roaring  tide  over  that 
little  island  of  quiet."  Our  illustration  of  the 
Holborn  front  of  Staple  Inn  was  painted  before  its 
sale  to  the  Prudential  Assurance  Company,  before 
therefore  it  had  been  restored,  when  the  timber 
beams  were  cleared  of  their  plaster  covering  and 
many  of  them  renewed.  Of  late  years  the  effect 
of  the  old  building  from  this  point  of  view  has 
been  much  injured  by  the  erection  of  lofty  houses 
on  each  side  of  it. 

A  short  distance  east  of  Staple  Inn,  on  the 
same  side  of  the  street,  was  a  sister  Inn  of  Chancery, 
disestablished  not  many  years  afterwards,  but  in 
part  also  saved  from  destruction.  This  was 
Barnard's  Inn,  originally  called  Mackworth's  Inn, 
from  having  been  the  residence  of  Dr.  John 
Mackworth,  Dean  of  Lincoln  in  the  reign  of 
Henry  VI.  His  successor  and  the  Chapter  of 
Lincoln  leased  it  to  Lyonel  Barnard,  from  whom 



was  derived  the  name  by  which  it  has  so  long  been 
known.  As  early  as  the  middle  of  the  fifteenth 
century  it  was  occupied  by  legal  students,  for 
Stow  tells  us  that  in  the  year  1454  there  was  "a 
great  fray"  in  Fleet  Street  between  ''men  of 
court "  and  the  inhabitants  there,  in  the  course  of 
which  the  Queen's  attorney  was  killed.  For  this 
act  the  Principals  of  Barnard's  Inn,  Clifford's  Inn, 
and  Furnival's  Inn  were  sent  as  prisoners  to 
Hertford  Castle.  In  the  Gordon  riots  of  1780 
Barnard's  Inn  had  a  narrow  escape,  the  neighbour- 
ing distillery  being  destroyed.  The  rules  regulating 
Barnard's  Inn  resembled  those  of  the  other  Inns 
of  Chancery.  In  1854  the  establishment  consisted 
of  a  Principal,  nine  Ancients,  and  five  Companions. 
The  advantage  of  being  a  Companion  was  stated 
to  be  *'  the  dining,"  and  the  advantage  of  being  an 
Ancient,  "dinners  and  some  little  fees."  In  1888 
the  whole  was  advertised  for  sale,  and  early  in  the 
nineties  it  was  bought  by  the  Mercers'  Company 
and  adapted  for  the  purposes  of  their  school. 

The  hall  is  only  36  feet  long  by  22  feet  in  width, 
and  faces  the  narrow  passage  by  which  one  enters 
from  Holborn.  It  certainly  dates  from  the  founda- 
tion of  the  building  in  the  fifteenth  century,  but 
has  been  altered  and  renewed  from  time  to  time. 


A  louvre  still  adorns  the  roof,  and  doubtless  the 
fire  was  laid  originally  upon  an  open  hearth  in 
the  middle  of  the  room  ;  the  fireplace  at  the  end  is, 
however,  of  considerable  age,  having  a  Tudor  arch. 
Our  painting  of  the  interior,  done  in  1886,  shows 
the  walls  adorned  with  portraits ;  the  full  length 
over  the  mantelpiece,  representing  Chief  Justice 
Holt,  is  now  at  the  National  Portrait  Gallery. 
The  figure  seated  at  a  table  is  clad  in  one  of  the 
gowns  which  were  worn  on  certain  occasions  by 
the  Ancients.  The  appearance  of  the  hall  has 
since  been  a  good  deal  altered ;  beyond  it  was  a 
somewhat  irregular  quadrangle,  part  of  which 
appears  in  another  illustration.  The  quaint  gabled 
houses  therein  shown  to  spectator's  right,  which 
were  close  to  the  yard  of  the  White  Horse  Inn, 
disappeared  in  the  year  1893,  but  those  in  the 
centre  part  of  the  illustration  remain,  their  fronts 
abutting  on  Fetter  Lane.  At  No.  2  dwelt  Peter 
Woulfe,  F.R.S.,  known  as  the  last  true  believer 
in  alchemy,  who  here  laboured  at  the  hopeless  task 
of  trying  to  make  gold.  Sir  Humphry  Davy  said 
of  him  that  he  used  to  hang  up  written  prayers  and 
recommendations  of  his  processes  to  Providence. 
The  chambers  were  then  so  filled  with  furniture 
and  apparatus  that  it  was  difficult  to  make  one's 


way  about  them.  His  remedy  for  illness  was  a 
journey  to  Edinburgh  and  back  by  coach,  and  a 
cold  taken  on  one  of  these  expeditions  brought 
on  inflammation  of  the  lungs,  from  which  he  died. 
Other  houses  in  the  quadrangle  have  been  replaced 
by  the  new  school  buildings.  This  picturesque 
and  interesting  old  place  was  apparently  not 
appreciated  by  Charles  Dickens,  for  there  are 
references  to  it  in  Great  Expectations  of  rather 
an  uncomplimentary  nature.  We  would  add  that 
between  the  time  of  the  Inn's  disestablishment  and 
its  occupation  by  the  Mercers'  Company  the  Art 
Workers'  Guild  had  its  meetings  in  the  hall,  and 
here  William  Morris  and  other  men  of  light  and 
leading  occupied  the  chair. 

We  will  now  retrace  our  steps  to  the  neighbour- 
hood of  the  Law  Courts,  on  the  west  side  of 
which,  until  a  few  years  ago,  there  was  one  of  the 
most  historic  Inns  of  Chancery,  Clement's  Inn, 
appertaining  to  the  Inner  Temple,  and  so  called 
because  it  stood  "near  to  St.  Clement's  Church, 
but  nearer  to  the  fair  fountain  called  Clement's 
Well."  It  is  described  in  a  lease  from  Sir  John 
Cantlow  to  Will.  Elyot  and  John  Elyot,  dated  2 
Hen.  VII.  (1486-87)  and  enrolled  in  Chancery  that 
year,  as  "  All  that  Inn  called  Clements  Inn,  and 


six  Chambers  without  and  near  the  South  gate  of 
the  sd  Inn,  and  two  gardens  adjoining,  in  one  of 
which  is  a  Dovehouse,  and  in  the  other  a  Barn 
with  Stables.  A  House  called  a  Gate  House,  and 
a  Close  called  Clements  Inn  Close,  all  which  are 
scituate  in  the  Parish  of  St.  Clement  Danes  in  the 
County  of  Middx,  between  the  tenem*  of  the  said 
S""-  John  Cantlow  in  the  tenure  of  the  sd  Will  and 
Jno.  Elyot,  and  the  Inn  and  Garden  of  the  New 
Inn,  and  the  Inn  and  Garden  of  Sir  John  Fortescue 
Knight  on  the  West,  and  between  tne  Highway 
opposite  the  Parish  Church  of  St.  Clement  on  the 
South,  and  a  Close  or  pasture  belonging  to  the 
chapter  of  St.  Giles's  Hospital  on  the  north." 

The  most  noteworthy  student  of  Clement's  Inn 
mentioned  in  literature  appears  to  have  been 
Justice  Shallow,  to  whom  reference  is  made  in  the 
quotation  heading  this  chapter.  That  fine  artist 
Hollar,  who  was  so  little  appreciated  in  his  lifetime, 
and  died  in  such  abject  poverty,  lodged  "without 
St.  Clement's  Inn  back  door"  in  1661.  Writing 
to  Aubrey  he  says,  *'  If  you  have  occasion  to  ask 
for  me,  then  you  must  say  the  Frenchman  limner." 
This  is  held  by  some  to  be  the  Shepherd's  Inn  of 
Thackeray's  Pendennis, 

The  chief  entrance  to  Clement's  Inn  was  formerly 


through  a  fine  gateway  to  the  north  of  the  Church 
of  St.  Clement  Danes,  which  was  swept  away  in 
1868,  to  make  room  for  the  new  Law  Courts.  The 
hall,  a  short  distance  to  the  north,  was  built  in  1715, 
and  close  at  hand  near  the  boundary  of  New  Inn 
was  the  dainty  little  house  here  depicted,  with  its 
trim  lawn  and  the  figure  of  a  negro  supporting  a 
sundial.  Garden  House,  as  it  was  called,  has  been 
carefully  drawn  and  described  by  Mr.  Roland  Paul, 
and  a  view  of  it  was  issued  by  the  Society  for 
Photographing  Relics  of  Old  London,  with  an 
accompanying  note  by  Mr.  Alfred  Marks.  It  had 
quoins,  moulded  cornices,  and  pilasters  of  rubbed 
brick,  stone  being  used  for  the  balustrades  and 
about  the  windows.  The  second  story  may  have 
been  a  later  addition.  According  to  Seymour, 
Clement's  Inn  came  to  the  Earls  of  Clare  from 
Sir  William  Holies,  who  was  Lord  Mayor  of 
London  in  1539.  The  kneeling  blackamoor  is 
usually  said  to  have  been  presented  to  the  Inn  by  a 
Holies,  Lord  Clare,  which  one  is  not  specified.  This 
statement,  which  appears  to  have  originated  with 
John  Thomas  Smith  in  The  Streets  of  London,  may 
not  improbably  be  true,  as  the  Holies  family  were 
the  ground  landlords.  The  story  has,-  however, 
grown  with  time,  and  of  late  years  it  has  generally 



been  added  that  the  statue  is  of  bronze,  and  that  it 
was  brought  from  Italy.  On  referring  to  Smith's 
gossiping  book,  above  mentioned,  one  finds  on 
another  page  that  during  the  earlier  part  of  the 
eighteenth  century  leaden  figures  were  largely 
manufactured  in  London,  the  original  figure  yard 
being  established  in  Piccadilly  by  John  Van  Nost, 
a  Dutch  sculptor  who  came  to  England  with 
King  William  III.  His  effects  were  sold  in  1711, 
after  his  death,  but  the  business  was  continued, 
being  taken  in  1739  by  John  Cheere,  "who  served 
time  with  his  brother.  Sir  Henry  Cheere,  the 
statuary  who  executed  several  monuments  in  West- 
minster Abbey.  The  figures  were  cast  in  lead  as 
large  as  life,  and  frequently  painted  with  an  inten- 
tion to  resemble  nature.  They  consisted  of  Punch, 
Harlequin — mowers  whetting  their  scythes — but 
above  all,  that  of  an  African  kneeling  with  a  sun- 
dial upon  his  head  found  the  most  extensive  sale." 
All  this  is  set  forth  in  Mr.  W.  K  Lethaby's 
excellent  little  volume  on  lead  work  (1893).  The 
leaden  figure  which  knelt  for  so  many  years  in  front 
of  the  Garden  House  at  Clement's  Inn,  and  about 
which  an  often  quoted  epigram  has  been  written, 
disappeared  mysteriously  in  1884,  the  rumour  being 
that  the  Ancients  had  sold  it  for  twenty  guineas. 


Not  long  afterwards  they  disestablished  themselves 
and  disposed  of  the  Inn  with  the  ground  attached 
to  it,  which  has  since  been  built  over.  About  the 
same  time  the  figure  found  its  way  to  the  garden 
of  the  Inner  Temple,  to  which  Society  Clement's 
Inn  appertained.  The  late  Mr.  Hare,  in  his  Walks 
in  London,  remarks  that  "  there  are  similar  figures 
at  Knowsley,  and  at  Arley  in  Cheshire."  I  have 
observed  three — possibly  with  slight  variations — 
at  Purley  Hall  near  Pangbourne,  at  Ockham 
Park  Surrey,  and  at  Slindon  Park  Sussex.  Mr. 
Philipson-Stow  has  one  which  came  from  Cowdray. 
An  illustration  of  another  is  given  in  Country  Life 
for  April  28,  1900,  this  time  bearing  on  his  head 
a  vase.  The  writer  of  the  accompanying  article 
believes  the  original  to  have  been  by  Pietro 
Tacca,  who  modelled  the  group  of  galley-slaves 
at  Leghorn,  and  adds  that  he  has  also  seen  such 
figures  in  Italy. 

The  formation  of  the  new  street  from  Holborn 
to  the  Strand,  while  no  doubt  increasing  public 
convenience,  has  swept  away,  we  suppose  inevitably, 
various  spots  dear  to  the  artist  and  the  antiquary. 
Among  those  with  the  loss  of  which  they  must  be 
debited  is  the  New  Inn,  another  Inn  of  Chancery 
appertaining  to  the  Middle  Temple;    a  few  frag- 


ments  of  it  were  still  standing  at  the  end  of  the  year 
1904.  It  had  touched  Clement's  Inn  on  the  west,  and 
was  entered  through  an  archway  on  the  north  side 
of  Wych  Street.  There  was  an  ample  square,  with 
trees  and  pleasant  brick  buildings,  which  dated  from 
the  late  seventeenth  or  early  eighteenth  century. 
Sir  George  Buc  tells  us  that  "Newe  Inne  was  a 
guest  Inne,  the  sign  whereof  was  the  picture  of  our 
Lady,  and  thereupon  it  was  also  called  Our  Ladies 
Inne ;  it  was  purchased  or  hired  by  Syr  John 
Fineux,  Chiefe  Justice  of  the  King's  Bench  in  the 
raigne  of  King  Edward  the  Fourth,  for  6"  per 
annum,  to  place  therein  those  students  of  the  Law 
who  were  lodged  in  the  little  Old  Bailey,  in  a  house 
called  St.  George's  Lane."  Sir  Thomas  More  was 
of  New  Inn  before  becoming  a  member  of  Lincoln's 
Inn.  When  deprived  of  the  Chancellorship,  he 
spoke  of  being  reduced  to  "  New  Inn  fare  where- 
with many  an  honest  man  is  well  contented." 

We  have  reserved  until  the  end  of  the  chapter 
our  notice  of  Clifford's  Inn,  Fleet  Street,  the 
most  ancient  Inn  of  Chancery,  which  was  not  sold 
until  the  spring  of  1903,  and  is  still  almost  intact. 
Like  Lincoln's  Inn,  Gray's  Inn,  and  Furnival's 
Inn,  it  had  first  grown  up  in  or  near  the  house 
of  a  great  nobleman.     From  an  original  document, 


dated  February  24,  1310,  we  learn  that  the  King 
on  that  day  granted  to  Robert  de  Clifford,  fifth 
Baron  Clifford  by  tenure  and  the  first  by  writ,  a 
"messuage  with  the  appurtenances  next  to  the 
Church  of  St.  Dunstan-in-the-West  in  the  suburb 
of  London,"  which  had  come  into  the  possession 
of  the  King's  father,  Edward  I.,  and  had  lately 
been  held  by  John  de  Brittany,  but  was  then  hi 
the  King's  own  hands.  This  Robert  de  Clifford 
was  killed  at  the  Battle  of  Bannockburn.  His 
son's  widow,  Isabel,  some  thii-ty  years  afterwards, 
demised  the  said  messuage  to  "  students  of  the  law  " 
for  a  rent  of  £lO  a  year.  Except  for  a  short  time 
after  the  attainder  of  John,  ninth  Baron  CUfford,  a 
vehement  and  cruel  Lancastrian,  the  house  con- 
tinued to  belong  to  the  de  Clifford  family,  being 
however,  it  is  thought,  always  used  as  an  Inn  of 
Chancery  after  the  original  demise  of  Isabel  de 
Clifford.  The  famous  Coke  in  1571,  being  then 
nineteen  years  of  age,  went  to  reside  at  Clifford's  Inn, 
and  in  the  following  year,  as  Fuller  tells  us,  he  was 
"  entered  as  studient  of  Municipal  Law  in  the  Inner 
Temple,"  to  which  Clifford's  Inn  was  attached. 
John  Selden  followed  his  example,  entering  at 
Clifford's  Inn  in  1602,  and  at  the  Inner  Temple  two 
years  afterwards.     In  1574  the  judges-  ordered  that 


every  utter  barrister  should  for  three  years  after  he 
was  called  "attend  ordinary  mootings  and  other 
exercises  of  learning  both  in  Court  and  Chancery," 
and  no  one  was  then  allowed  to  plead  in  a  Court 
at  Westminster  unless  he  was  either  a  reader  or 
bencher  at  an  Inn  of  Court,  an  utter  barrister  of 
five  years'  standing,  or  had  been  a  reader  at  an  Inn 
of  Chancery  for  two  years  at  least.  But  from  the 
earlier  part  of  the  seventeenth  century  the  Inns 
of  Chancery  began  to  go  out  of  fashion  as  legal 
seminaries,  and  though  they  were  always  connected 
with  the  law  and  almost  to  the  last,  traces  remained 
of  the  former  system  of  legal  study,  they  by  degrees 
left  off  fulfilling  a  main  object  of  their  original 
foundation.  The  earliest  record  in  possession  of 
the  Society  of  Clifford's  Inn  was  a  copy  and  trans- 
lation of  some  ancient  rules,  which,  in  part  at  least, 
dated  from  the  time  of  Edward  IV.,  but  were 
renewed  and  written  out  afresh  during  Henry  VI I. 's 
reign.  Some  of  them  are  very  quaint.  Under 
Rule  11  a  member  could  be  fined  one  farthing  for 
each  word  of  ribaldry  spoken  in  the  hall  during 
dinner  or  supper.  Rule  14  ordains  that  any 
member  striking  another  member  "with  his  fist, 
cudgel,  knife,  dagger,  or  other  weapon,  without 
effusion  of  blood  shall  pay  for  every  such  offence 


twelve  pence,  and  shall  make  amends ;  but  if  he 
strikes  to  the  effusion  of  blood  he  shall  make  amends 
to  the  party  at  the  discretion  of  the  Prmcipal,  and 
shall  pay  to  the  Society  six  shillings  and  eight  pence, 
and  repeating  such  behaviour  shall  be  expelled  and 
put  out  of  y^  Inn."  A  fine  is  also  fixed  for  any 
member  who  shall  persuade  or  compel  another 
member  to  sally  forth  from  the  Inn  for  purposes  of 
revenge.  Each  member  is  to  pay  thirteen  pence 
for  vessels  of  pewter,  and  is  bound  to  have  in  the 
kitchen  "two  plates  and  dishes  of  pewter  every  day 
for  his  own  use.  He  shall  not  break  into  the 
buttery,  or  through  the  gates  after  they  have  been 
shut,  or  disgrace  the  Inn  by  bringing  into  it  or  con- 
cealing therein  any  common  woman."  Members 
were  not  to  play  at  or  keep  "  any  dice,  cards,  tables, 
piquet,  or  any  ridiculous  amusements  in  metalls, 
coites,  or  other  unlawful  game  within  the  same  Inn 
or  without,  privately  or  openely,  at  any  time,  or  in 
the  times  of  Christmas  or  Candlemas  without  the 
consent  of  the  Principal  and  the  whole  of  the 
Council."  No  member  was  to  lend  money  on 
usury,  or  "  receive,  keep,  or  bring  into  the  Inn  any 
dog  called  a  greyhound,  grey  bitch,  spaniel  or 
mastiff,"  under  penalty  for  a  first  offence  of  forty 
pence;  or  to  write  or  scratch  upon  the  tables   in 


the  hall,  or  take  fruit  or  herbage  growing  in  the 
garden  without  leave  of  the  Principal.  Other  rules 
relate  to  the  system  of  education,  being  chiefly  a 
list  of  fines  for  non-attendance  at  lectures  and 
moots  or  legal  discussions. 

On  March  29,  1618,  the  Society  of  Cliffbrd's  Inn 
purchased  for  the  sum  of  £600  from  Francis,  fourth 
Earl  of  Cumberland,  and  Lord  Clifford,  his  son  and 
heir,  "the  capital  messuage  commonly  called 
Clifford's  Inn."  There  are  three  reservations  in  the 
grant.  On  the  west  side  of  the  garden,  adjoining 
Serjeants'  Inn,  Chancery  Lane,  and  where  it 
touched  the  holders  of  the  Rolls  House  property,  a 
strip  of  land  22  feet  wide,  and  134  feet  long,  with 
the  trees  upon  it,  was  to  be  "  kept  and  maynteyned 
by  the  Earle  and  Lord  Clifford,  their  heirs  and 
assignes,"  and  this  strip  was  afterwards  sold  to  the 
representatives  of  Serjeants'  Inn.  A  rent  charge  of 
£4  a  year  was  also  reserved,  and  the  Cliffords  kept 
for  themselves  or  their  representative  a  set  of 
chambers.  Francis,  Earl  of  Cumberland,  who  thus 
sold  Clifford's  Inn,  was  ninth  in  descent  from 
Robert  de  Clifford,  the  original  grantee.  The 
Earldom  became  extinct  in  the  next  generation,  but 
his  son  Henry  left  a  daughter,  who  married  Richard 
Boyle,  first  Earl  of  Burlington.     From  the  daughter 


and  heiress  of  the  third  Earl,  who  is  so  well  re- 
membered for  his  taste  and  knowledge  of  archi- 
tecture, the  small  rights  retained  by  the  Clifford 
family  were  conveyed  to  the  Cavendishes.  The 
rent  charge  on  Clifford's  Inn  of  £4  a  year,  with  the 
nomination  for  the  chambers,  continued  to  belong- 
to  them  until  the  year  1880,  when  it  was  bought 
by  the  Society  from  the  father  of  the  present  Duke 
of  Devonshire. 

Want  of  space  forbids  our  dwelling  at  length 
on  the  customs  and  constitution  of  the  Society  in 
later  times.  Here,  as  elsewhere,  it  was  governed 
by  a  Council,  the  members  of  which  were  latterly 
called  Rules,  though  the  term  Ancients  was  also 
sometimes  applied  to  them.  There  were  also  junior 
members  called  Fellows,  the  junior  table  in  hall 
being  latterly  for  some  unexplained  reason  known 
as  the  Kentish  Mess.  From  an  entry  in  the 
minutes  for  the  year  1613  there  seems  to  have  been 
then  a  hearth  in  the  centre,  the  smoke  no  doubt 
escaping  by  a  louvre,  such  as  that  at  Barnard's  Inn. 
On  February  11,  1670,  Francis  Reading  and  John 
Anderton,  Fellows,  were  fined  2s.  6d.  each  for 
making  default  in  the  exercise  of  ''  inner  barristers  " 
at  a  moot  in  the  hall,  but  on  their  humble  suit  the 
fines  were  reduced  to  one  shilling  each.     On  June 



24  of  the  same  year,  at  the  request  of  Sir  John 
Howell,  Recorder,  the  authorities  of  Clifford's  Inn 
agreed  to  allow  the  judges  to  use  the  hall  for  the 
purpose  of  hearing  and  determining  causes  ;  as  they 
were  empowered  to  do  by  Act  of  Parliament. 
Accordingly  Sir  Matthew  Hale  and  other  principal 
judges  sat  there  to  settle  all  disputes  about 
boundaries,  etc.  arising  out  of  the  Great  Fire. 

In  1766  the  question  of  building  a  new  common 
hall  was  considered,  and  after  more  than  a  year's 
deliberation  the  plan  of  Mr.  Clarke,  bricklayer 
to  the  Society,  was  accepted,  the  price  agreed  on 
being  £600.  The  old  walls  and  foundations  were 
utilised  to  some  extent,  but  it  was  afterwards  found 
necessary  to  take  down  the  north  wall  to  the 
ground  level.  Later  in  the  year  it  was  arranged 
with  Clarke  that  "  the  porch  and  cupola  of  the 
Hall  be  made  after  the  plans  drawn  by  Mr.  Gorham, 
and  now  produced,  being  in  the  Gothic  style  and 
more  agreeable  to  the  windows  and  the  rest  of  the 
buildmg  than  the  porch  and  cupola  in  the  original 
drawings,  and  Mr.  Clarke  agrees  to  do  the  same 
for  £lO  beyond  the  estimate."  The  Hall  thus 
evolved,  though  one  can  hardly  say  that  it  has 
architectural  merit,  is  a  pleasant  structure,  and 
incorporated  in  it  there  is  doubtless  much  mediaeval 


work.  The  old  wall  is  distinctly  visible  at  the  east 
end  where  one  passes  through  what  is  perhaps  a 
fourteenth  -  century  arch,  descending  by  several 
steps  into  the  narrow  chamber  once  used  as  a 
buttery.  Outside  are  the  date  1767  and  the  initial 
letters  ^^m.  referring  to  the  then  Principal  William 
Monk.  The  Clifford  Arms  are  over  the  Fleet 
Street  entrance.  Since  they  migrated  from  Bar- 
nard's Inn  at  the  beginning  of  1894  the  Hall  has  been 
used  as  the  meeting -place  of  the  Art  Workers' 
Guild,  which  claims  to  have  done  something  for 
the  furtherance  of  true  art  in  this  country. 

The  rest  of  the  precinct  consists  of  brick  build- 
ings, courtyards,  and  a  pretty  garden  adorned  by 
plane  trees.  The  buildings  vary  in  date,  the  most 
ancient  in  part  at  least  being  No.  12  on  the 
south  side,  which  first  saw  the  light  in  1624,  and 
was  originally  known  as  Fetherston's  building. 
Nos.  8  and  10  at  the  east  end  of  the  Hall  are  also 
of  considerable  age.  On  what  appears  to  be  the 
oldest  part  of  the  latter,  facing  the  garden,  is  a 
stone  with  initials  j^f.  referring  to  Principal  James 
Foster,  and  the  date  1719  ;  this,  however,  was  put 
up,  not  at  the  time  of  the  original  building  but  of 
a  subsequent  repair.  On  the  east  side  of  the 
garden  is  the  range  of  chambers  numbered  14  to 


16,  forming  a  delightful  group  and  all  dating  from 
about  1663  except  the  first  named,  which  was 
built  in  1669-70.  In  fact  this  part  of  the  block, 
together  with  the  adjoining  buildings  immediately 
to  the  east  of  it  right  up  to  Fetter  Lane,  seem 
to  have  been  seriously  damaged  if  not  destroyed 
in  the  Great  Fire,  which  certainly  burned  down 
No.  13,  across  the  courtyard  a  little  further  south, 
though  it  missed  the  two  old  gabled  houses  in 
Fleet  Street  east  of  St.  Dunstan's  Church,  which 
were  pulled  down  quite  recently.  At  No.  16,  where 
Mr.  Emery  Walker  is  fitly  housed,  the  London 
Topographical  Society  also  has  its  headquarters. 
At  No.  3,  in  the  first  court  from  Fleet  Street, 
was  some  finely  carved  woodwork  of  the  Grinling 
Gibbons  style,  but  this  has  now  found  a  home  in 
the  Victoria  and  Albert  Museum.  No.  3  was 
rebuilt  in  1686,  No.  1  in  1682,  and  No.  2  in  1690. 
Nos.  5,  6,  and  7  no  longer  exist ;  the  ground  on 
which  they  stood  was  required  for  the  present  St. 
Dunstan's  Church,  and  they  were  destroyed  in 
1830.  The  chief  entrance  to  Clifford's  Inn  is  the 
passage  from  Fleet  Street  immediately  west  of  St. 

To  return  for  a  short  time  to  the  history  of  the 
Inn.     A  serious  dispute  took  place  in  1833  as  to 


the  election  of  Principal,  Mr.  Jessop,  a  barrister, 
trying  to  turn  out  a  solicitor  named  Allen,  who 
had  been  elected.  It  ended  in  a  law  suit,  which 
was  tried  at  the  King's  Bench  in  the  following 
year,  when  Jessop  failed,  although  he  had  to  some 
extent  the  support  of  the  Benchers  of  the  Inner 
Temple.  Clifford's  Inn  was  indeed  nominally 
dependent  on  that  Society,  but  it  was  then 
declared  in  court  by  one  of  the  judges  that  no 
instance  had  been  adduced  of  the  governing  body 
of  the  Inner  Temple  having  exercised  authority 
over  it  by  compulsion.  For  many  years  prior 
to  1884  the  Society  of  Clifford's  Inn  was  composed 
of  twenty-five  members  ;  namely,  the  President, 
twelve  Rules  and  twelve  junior  Fellows,  or 
members  of  the  Kentish  Mess.  Until  that  year 
the  Principal  and  Rules  carried  on  the  manage- 
ment, but  in  1884  the  Rules  and  members  of  the 
Kentish  Mess  were  amalgamated.  After  1877 
no  new  member  was  admitted  into  the  Society. 
Latterly,  until  the  letting  of  the  Hall  when  they 
ceased  there  altogether,  the  dinners  in  Hall  were 
reduced  to  two  in  each  term.  On  these  occasions 
it  was  the  custom  to  perform  a  curious  ceremony. 
The  President  for  the  time  being  took  up  four 
little  loaves  baked  together  in  the  form  of  a  cross  ; 


he  knocked  them  thrice  on  the  table  and  then  slid 
them  down  the  middle  of  it.  Finally  they  reached 
the  hands  of  the  porter,  who,  arrayed  in  his  gown, 
was  standing  at  the  lower  end,  and  by  him  they 
were  removed  to  the  back  of  the  screen.  The 
meaning  of  this  ancient  custom  is  forgotten ;  the 
three  knocks  may  have  been  symbolical  of  the 
Holy  Trinity,  and  the  four  loaves  of  the  Gospels. 
Perhaps  it  was  in  part  originally  meant  to  imply 
that  the  fragments  of  the  meal  should  be  given  to 
the  poor.  Once  a  year  there  was  a  set  speech  by 
the  Bursar  to  the  Principal,  who  replied.  The 
last  vestige  of  the  old  educational  system  was  the 
appointment  of  a  reader.  As  we  have  seen  was 
the  case  at  Staple  Inn  and  was  perhaps  usual  at 
other  Inns  of  Chancery,  the  Benchers  of  the  parent 
Inn  of  Court  used  to  send  up  the  names  of  three 
men  for  this  office.  From  them  the  Principal  and 
Rules  selected  one,  but  finally  he  performed  no 
function  beyond  dining  in  Hall.  The  appointment 
died  a  natural  death  in  1845,  although  many  years 
afterwards  the  Benchers  of  the  Inner  Temple 
offered  to  suggest  the  names  of  gentlemen  as 

Of  literary  men  who  have  made  Clifford's  Inn 
their  home,  the  names  of  two  are  not  likely  to  be 


forgotten.  First  in  point  of  time,  though  not  of 
talent,  was  George  Dyer,  Lamb's  innocent  friend, 
so  charmingly  depicted  in  the  Essays  of  Elia^  who 
lived  here  "like  a  dove  in  an  asp's  nest."  His 
slovenly  condition  excited  the  pity  of  one  Mrs. 
Mather,  widow,  whose  third  husband,  a  solicitor, 
had  occupied  chambers  opposite  to  Dyer.  She 
took  him  in  hand,  married  him,  and  by  her  care 
is  said  greatly  to  have  improved  his  appearance. 
In  1841,  however,  she  again  became  a  widow,  and 
Crabbe  Robinson  saw  her  as  late  as  December 
7,  1860.  She  was  then  in  her  99th  year,  and 
"vigorous  for  her  time  of  life."  His  friends 
are  still  deploring  the  loss  of  Samuel  Butler, 
author  of  Ei^ewhon,  and  of  other  able  works — a 
highly -gifted  man  and  a  delightful  companion,  who 
lived  for  many  years  at  No.  15,  finding  the  seclusion 
of  the  old  Inn  thoroughly  congenial  to  his  tastes. 
That  it  may  survive  its  tenant  at  least  for  a  few 
more  years,  if  not  for  all  time,  is  the  earnest  wish 
of  the  writer. 



What's  uot  destroyed  by  Time's  devouring  hand  ? 
Where's  Troy,  and  where's  the  Maypole  in  the  Strand  ? 
Pease,  cabbages,  and  turnips  once  grew  where 
Now  stands  New  Bond  Street,  and  a  newer  square. 
Such  piles  of  buildings  now  rise  up  and  down, 
London  itself  seems  going  out  of  town. 

James  Bramston,  The  Art  of  Politicks  (1729). 

Immediately  west  of  Lincoln's  Inn  and  the  Law 
Courts  great  changes  have  taken  place  in  recent 
years.  First  came  the  displacement  caused  by  the 
building  of  the  latter.  Then  followed  the  disap- 
pearance of  Clement's  Inn,  and  the  almost  com- 
plete destruction  of  the  region  usually  named  Clare 
Market ;  and  now  the  most  sweeping  change  of 
all  is  in  progress,  namely  the  formation  of  the 
London  County  Council's  new  thoroughfare  from 
Holborn  to  the  Strand.  It  is  earnestly  to  be 
hoped  that  those  in  authority  will  not  allow  the 
approach    from    the    south   to   be   spoilt   by   the 



erection  of  lofty  buildings  close  to  the  two  Strand 
Churches.  We  here  want  quiet  harmony,  not 
what  is  called  by  the  "  Improvement  Committee  " 
"an  imposing  effect." 

A  source  of  very  great  regret  to  the  writer  is 
the  fact  that  almost  all  the  houses  on  the  west  side 
of  that  noble  square,  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields,  have 
been  scheduled  for  destruction,  the  line  of  new 
street  running  perilously  near  to  them.  An  oil 
picture  of  this  side  preserved  at  Wilton,  the 
home  of  the  Earl  of  Pembroke,  shows  it  as 
originally  planned  by  Inigo  Jones,  acting  under  a 
Commission  appointed  in  1618.  It  was  then  called 
Arch  Row,  from  the  archway  leading  into  Duke 
Street,  now  Sardinia  Street,  and  the  most  con- 
spicuous object  in  the  picture  is  Lindsey  House, 
its  stone  front  standing  out  prominently  amidst 
the  other  buildings,  which  appear  to  have  been 
all  in  similar  style,  of  brick,  with  engaged  pil- 
asters having  stone  capitals,  and  bands  of  the 
same  material  with  roses  and  fleurs-de-lys  in 

By  degrees  most  of  the  original  brick  houses  have 
disappeared,  and  those  that  remain  are  stuccoed 
or  plastered  over.  Less  than  a  year  ago,  how- 
ever, there  was  one  brick  house  more  or  less  in  its 




original  condition,  which,  although  not  latterly- 
reckoned  as  a  part  of  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields,  being 
numbered  I  think  2a  Portsmouth  Street,  and 
having  a  mean  shop  in  front  of  it  on  what  had 
been  the  fore-court,  was  really  the  southernmost 
of  the  buildings  designed  by  Inigo  Jones.  I  was 
fortunate  enough  to  get  a  sketch  of  this  (here 
reproduced)  immediately  before  its  demolition  by 
the  London  County  Council  in  the  early  autumn 
of  1904<,  and  since  then  have  taken  considerable 
pains,  so  far  with  poor  success,  to  find  out  its 
history.  Locally  known  as  Portsmouth  House, 
and  thus  named  in  the  5  feet  Ordnance  map 
of  London,  it  was  said  by  tradition  to  have  been 
connected  with  Louise  de  Keroug^Ue,  Charles  II. 's 
naughty  French  Duchess,  but  for  this  no  authority 
is  at  present  forthcoming,  and  her  chief  place  of 
residence  in  London,  if  not  the  only  one,  was  the 
splendid  lodging  at  Whitehall,  which,  according 
to  Evelyn,  was  "  twice  or  thrice  pulled  down  to 
satisfy  her  prodigal  and  expensive  pleasures." 
Whether  or  not  she  at  any  time  occupied  this 
house  in  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields,  it  must  have  been 
built  a  generation  before  she  came  to  London. 
One  should  note,  by  the  way,  that  Nell  Gwyn,  the 
Duchess's  English  rival,  undoubtedly  lodged  for  a 


time  in  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields,  and  there  she  gave 
birth  to  the  future  Duke  of  St.  Albans. 

In  connection  with  Portsmouth  House  the 
question  naturally  arises,  why  was  Portsmouth 
Street  (running  in  front  of  its  site)  so  called  ? 
and  to  this  question  no  publication,  as  far  as  the 
writer  is  aware,  gives  any  satisfactory  answer.  In 
Lea  and  Morden's  map  of  1682  the  lower  part  of 
the  street  is  marked  as  Louches  Buildings,  and  the 
present  name  does  not  occur  on  any  plan  to  which 
access  is  obtainable,  until  in  1746  Rocque  gives  to 
the  upper  portion  the  name  of  Portsmouth  Corner. 
The  street  was  formerly  in  the  parish  of  St.-Giles- 
in-the-Fields,  but  is  now  in  that  of  St.  Clement 
Danes.  The  rate -books  of  St.  Giles  have  been 
searched  from  1740  to  1789,  and  Portsmouth 
Street  is  therein  first  mentioned  in  1783,  having 
been  treated  before  as  part  of  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields. 

Failing  Louise  de  Keroualle,  it  has  been  thought 
that  the  house  (and  hence  the  street)  was  named 
after  a  predecessor  of  the  present  Earl  of  Ports- 
mouth, whose  title  was  created  in  1743.  This  at 
first  sight  appears  to  be  probable,  as  the  Wallops 
undoubtedly  lived  in  the  immediate  neighbour- 
hood. The  third  Earl  had  a  house  on  the  west 
side    of    Lincoln's    Inn    Fields,    and,    within    the 


memory  of  man,  a  lady  was  alive  who  remem- 
bered dancing  with  him  at  a  great  ball  given  there. 
But  alas !  those  fatal  rate-books  of  the  parish  of 
St.  Giles  reveal  the  fact  that  his  title  does  not 
appear  in  connection  with  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields 
until  in  the  year  1800  he  succeeded  Lady  Grantley 
in  the  occupation  of  a  house  to  the  north  of  the 
archway  leading  into  Duke  Street,  which  from 
further  examination  proves  to  have  been  No.  63, 
bought  in  1758  by  Mr.  Norton,  who  became 
Speaker  of  the  House  of  Commons,  and  afterwards 
first  Baron  Grantley.  Enough,  perhaps,  has  been 
said  to  prove  that  the  name  was  not  derived  from 
the  Wallop  family.  If  some  one  will  trace  its 
origin  as  connected  with  this  site,  by  contemporary 
evidence,  he  will  do  a  useful  piece  of  topographical 
work.  One  may  add  that  a  wooden  mantelpiece 
from  Portsmouth  House  has  found  its  way  to  the 
Horniman  Museum,  Forest  Hill. 

It  would  require  many  pages  to  write  a  detailed 
account  of  the  various  buildings  on  the  west  side 
of  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields,  but  we  will  briefly  allude 
to  a  few  of  the  more  interesting  ones  yet  standing. 
Newcastle  House  at  the  north-west  corner  is  an 
important  mansion  of  brick  and  stone  now  divided 
into  two,  numbered  QQ  and  67,  and  was  built  in 


1686  for  William  Herbert,  Marquis  of  Powis,  by 
an  architect  known  as  Captain  William  Wynde, 
who  had  held  a  commission  in  the  Dutch  army, 
and  is  said  to  have  studied  under  Webb,  the  pupil 
and  executor  of  Inigo  Jones.  Lord  Somers,  when 
Lord  Chancellor,  for  a  time  inhabited  the  house. 
It  was  sold  to  John  Holies,  Duke  of  Newcastle, 
before  1708,  and  came  into  the  hands  of  his 
nephew,  Thomas  Pelham  -  Holies,  Duke  of  New- 
castle, who  was  so  prominent  a  politician  through- 
out much  of  the  eighteenth  century.  It  has  been 
for  years  in  the  occupation  of  legal  firms,  James 
Farrer,  grandfather  of  Sir  William,  having  bought 
the  southern  part  in  1795.  Until  1868,  besides 
being  an  office,  this  was  used  as  a  residence.  There 
are  some  fine  rooms  here  with  plaster  ceilings.  One 
on  the  ground  floor  in  front  has  in  the  centre  an 
oval  design  with  delicate  Adam  mouldings ;  out- 
side this  are  four  peacocks  in  relief,  which,  with  all 
the  remaining  plaster  work,  are  of  much  older  date, 
and,  although  not  "in  their  pride"  (as  heraldically 
they  should  be)  because  in  that  case  they  would  not 
fit  into  their  respective  spandrels,  they  doubtless 
represent  the  Pelham  crest.  There  are  also  some 
excellent  carved  over-doors.  On  the  north  side  the 
building   projects  on  arches  over  the  footpath  of 


Great  Queen  Street,  forming  a  short  arcade  or 
covered  way.  It  is  most  satisfactory  that  this  fine 
mansion,  which  now  belongs  to  Sir  William  Farrer, 
is  being  admirably  repaired,  the  modern  division 
into  two  being  done  away  with.  This  and  the  stone 
house  adjoining,  which  was  designed  by  Thomas 
Leverton  in  the  last  quarter  of  the  eighteenth  cen- 
tury, are  the  only  buildings  on  the  west  side  ot 
Lincoln's  Inn  Fields  not  scheduled  for  destruction. 
Perhaps  a  still  more  famous  mansion  is  that  now 
numbered  59  and  60,  which  has  been  already 
mentioned  as  Lindsey  House,  and  although  of 
stone  is  now  plastered  and  painted.  Colin  Camp- 
bell, the  architect,  who  published  a  drawing  of 
Lindsey  House  in  the  Vitruvius  Britaiinicus,  states 
that  it  was  designed  by  Inigo  Jones  in  the  year 
1640.  It  originally  had  in  front  six  massive  brick 
piers,  two  of  which  remain,  and  was  built  for 
Robert  Bertie,  Earl  of  Lindsey,  who  commanded 
the  forces  of  Charles  I.  at  the  outbreak  of  the 
Civil  War.  He  died  in  1642,  of  wounds  received 
at  the  battle  of  Edgehill.  The  fourth  Earl  was 
created  Duke  of  Ancaster  in  1715,  hence  for  a 
time  it  had  the  name  of  Ancaster  House.  The 
Duke  sold  it  to  the  "proud"  Duke  of  Somerset, 
who   married   the  widow  of  Mr.   Thynne,  Count 


Konigsmarck's  victim.  The  inside  of  the  house 
has  been  much  altered,  the  party- wall  which  divides 
it  into  two  running  up  behind  the  central  windows. 
It  has,  on  the  ground  floor  in  front,  at  No.  59, 
a  fine  mantelpiece  which  has  been  attributed  to 
Jones,  but  is  probably  of  much  later  date,  perhaps 
by  Isaac  Ware.  As  Mr.  Alfred  Marks  has  pointed 
out,  the  room  contains  an  alcove  bearing  the  arms 
of  the  Shiffner  family,  a  member  of  which  appears, 
from  the  Gentleman  s  Magazine  of  1759,  to  have 
then  resided  at  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields. 

It  may  be  mentioned  that  the  next  house,  also 
originally  one,  and  numbered  57  and  58,  although 
comparatively  modern  is  of  some  architectural 
merit,  having  a  stone  front  and  semicircular  portico 
supported  by  four  fluted  columns ;  it  is  thought 
to  have  been  designed  by  Sir  William  Chambers. 
At  No.  58  John  Forster  lived,  and  there  he  was 
often  visited  by  Dickens,  who,  in  a  room  on  the 
flrst  floor,  read  his  Christmas  book.  The  Chimes^ 
to  a  select  and  critical  audience.  He  indicates  it 
as  the  residence  of  Mr.  Tulkinghorn  in  chapter  x. 
of  Bleak  House.  Here  also  James  Spedding  had 
rooms,  and  is  known  to  have  put  up  his  friend 
Alfred  Tennyson  in  the  attic.  But  from  the 
memoir  of  the  latter  by  his  son  one  gathers  that 


he  only  stayed  now  and  then  in  Lincoln's  Inn 
Fields,  and  that  in  early  life  his  favourite  London 
lodging  was  at  the  south  end  of  Norfolk  Street, 
Strand,  "  the  last  house  at  the  bottom  on  the  left.'^ 
That  street  is  now  altogether  rebuilt. 

None  of  the  houses  north  of  the  passage  to 
Sardinia  Street  now  have  the  roses  and  fleurs-de- 
lys,  but  they  occur  on  Nos.  51  and  52,  and  on  54 
which  is  partly  over  the  archway  ;  their  brickwork, 
however,  is  concealed  by  stucco.  No.  55  has  a 
similar  cornice  and  pilasters,  but  at  present  no 
roses  and  fleurs-de-lys.  The  archway  into  Sardinia 
Street  from  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields  still  has  over 
it  a  stone  inscribed  with  the  date  1648,  and 
the  former  name,  "Duke  Street,"  which  was 
changed  to  Sardinia  Street  in  1878,  after  the 
Roman  Catholic  Chapel  of  S.S.  Anselm  and 
Cecilia,  in  its  earlier  days  the  chapel  of  the  Sar- 
dinian Minister.  Here  in  1793  Fanny  Burney 
was  married  to  General  D'Arblay.  In  this 
street  lived  Benjamin  Franklin  when  employed 
as  a  journeyman  printer  at  Watt's  office  in  Wild 
Court.  The  greater  part  if  not  the  whole  of  it  will 
shortly  be  obliterated. 

To  return  for  a  moment  to  Portsmouth  Street. 
No.   14,   the  quaint  little  structure  with  a  high- 


pitched  roof,  on  the  north  side,  nearly  opposite  the 
site  of  Portsmouth  House,  is  quite  worthy  of 
record  on  account  of  its  age  and  picturesque 
appearance,  but  its  claim  to  be  the  original  of 
Dickens's  Old  Curiosity  Shop,  a  claim  which  has 
been  also  urged  for  a  house  in  Fetter  Lane,  will 
not,  we  fear,  hold  water.  In  the  first  place 
Dickens  himself  says  that  "the  old  house  had  been 
long  ago  pulled  down,  and  a  fine  broad  road  was  in 
its  place."  An  even  stronger  argument  against  the 
legend  is  contained  in  an  article  contributed  to  the 
Echo  during  December  1883,  when  the  still  exist- 
ing house  in  Portsmouth  Street  was  said  to  be 
threatened  with  destruction,  and  in  consequence 
crowds  were  flocking  to  the  spot.  The  writer, 
Mr.  Charles  Tesseyman,  makes  the  following  clear 
statement : — "  My  brother,  who  occupied  No.  14 
Portsmouth  Street  between  1868  and  1877,  the 
year  of  his  decease,  had  the  words  *The  Old 
Curiosity  Shop'  placed  over  the  front  for  purely 
business  purposes,  as  likely  to  attract  custom  to  his 
shop,  he  being  a  dealer  in  books,  paintings,  old 
china,  etc.  Before  1868 — that  is  before  my  brother 
had  the  words  put  up — no  suggestion  had  ever 
been  made  that  the  place  was  the  veritable  *  Old 
Curiosity  Shop'  immortalised  by  Dickens."     The 



late  Mr.  C.  W.  Heckethorn  in  his  book  on 
Lincoln's  Inn  Fields  boldly  affirmed  that  it  was  a 
relic  of  the  Duchess  of  Portsmouth's  dairy-house. 

In  1897  a  curious  tavern,  the  Black  Jack,  on 
the  opposite  side  of  the  way,  disappeared.  It  was 
known  in  the  neighbourhood  as  "  the  Jump,"  the 
story  being  that  Jack  Sheppard  on  one  occasion 
escaped  capture  there  by  jumping  out  of  a  first- 
floor  window.  The  house  was  also  connected  by 
tradition  with  Joe  Miller  of  the  Jest  Book,  who 
was  buried  in  the  churchyard  of  Portugal  Street, 
now  absorbed  and  obliterated  by  King's  College 
Hospital,  which  in  its  turn  will  soon  be  "  improved  " 
away  from  this  site,  and  be  more  or  less  forgotten. 
Miller's  tombstone  (the  second  one),  still  in  exist- 
ence, describes  him  as  "  a  tender  husband,  a  sincere 
friend,  a  facetious  companion,  and  an  excellent 
comedian."  It  may  be  mentioned  incidentally  that 
Lincoln's  Inn  Fields  Theatre  stood  on  the  south 
side  of  the  Fields  at  the  back  of  what  is  now  the 
Royal  College  of  Surgeons.  Until  1816  a  club 
called  "the  Honourable  Society  of  Jackers,"  to 
which  John  Kemble  and  Theodore  Hook  belonged, 
used  to  meet  at  the  Black  Jack.  The  adjacent 
George  the  Fourth  Tavern,  which  stood  at  the 
north-east   corner   of  Gilbert's   Passage   (the  site 

■%;^iii(iiii  iBiiiiBili^ifeiJ  ■ 


now  occupied  by  the  west  end  of  Portugal  Street), 
was  distinguished  by  a  row  of  pillars  supporting  the 
upper  floors,  and  some  enthusiasts  identified  it  as 
the  "  Magpie  and  Stump  "  of  Pickwick.  Between 
the  two  houses  was  Black  Jack  Alley. 

Working  our  way  back  to  the  space  cleared 
about  the  east  end  of  the  Strand  for  the  great 
scheme  of  reconstruction  now  in  progress,  we  would 
say  a  few  words  about  Holywell  Street,  a  narrow 
lane  which  extended  parallel  with  the  Strand, 
between  the  Churches  of  St.  Clement  Danes  and 
St.  Mary-le-Strand,  and  got  its  name  from  the 
"holy  well"  hard  by.  There  was  not  much  of 
historical  association  about  Holywell  Street,  its 
charm  consisting  in  the  picturesque  appearance  of 
the  gabled  houses  built  of  timber  and  plaster  work, 
which  showed  us  more  or  less  what  old  London 
must  have  looked  like  before  the  Great  Fire.  Their 
beauty  was  not  appreciated  by  the  painstaking 
Allen,  who,  in  his  History  of  London,  dismisses  it 
as  "  a  narrow  inconvenient  avenue  of  old  ill-formed 
houses."  Opening  into  it  from  the  north  was 
Lyons  Inn,  which  has  been  referred  to  in  a 
previous  chapter.  At  the  corner  of  a  house  on  the 
opposite  side  a  grotesque  carving  of  a  lion  was  to 
be  seen  some  years  ago ;  it  is  now  in  the  Guild- 


hall  Museum.  Almost  the  whole  of  the  south  side 
is  shown  in  our  two  illustrations,  the  carved  pro- 
jecting sign  of  a  half-moon,  one  of  the  last  surviv- 
ing early  shop  signs,  appearing  in  each.  In 
Strype's  day,  when  Holywell  Street  was  sometimes 
called  *'The  Back  Side  of  St.  Clement's,"  it  was 
tenanted  by  "divers  salesmen  and  piece-brokers," 
later  silk-mercers  were  the  chief  occupants,  and 
they  in  their  turn  were  by  degrees  displaced  by 
second-hand  booksellers.  For  a  time  it  had  an 
unsavoury  reputation,  hence  the  modern  effort,  not 
very  successful,  to  rename  it  Booksellers'  Row. 

From  the  point  west  of  St.  Clement  Danes 
where  Holywell  Street  began,  another  street 
branched  off  to  the  north-west,  known  as  Wych 
Street,  which  was  a  continuation  of  Drury  Lane. 
The  name  was  a  corruption  of  Aldewych,  the 
old  name  for  Drury  Lane;  the  London  County 
Council  has  wisely  reintroduced  it.  Wych  Street, 
like  Holywell  Street,  was  formerly  full  of  old 
gabled  houses.  From  the  Angel  Inn  at  the 
east  end,  on  the  site  of  which  Danes  Inn  lately 
stood.  Bishop  Hooper  was  taken  to  die  a  cruel 
death  at  Gloucester  in  1554.  A  more  cheerful 
recollection  is  that  of  Mark  Lemon,  the  well- 
known  editor  of  Punch,  who  had  been  previously 


for  some  time  landlord  of  the  Shakespeare's  Head, 
No.  31  Wych  Street,  his  presence  attracting  many 
actors  and  journaUsts  to  the  house.  We  doubt, 
however,  if  either  the  saintly  bishop  or  the  genial 
writer  left  quite  such  well-remembered  traditions 
here  as  Jack  Sheppard,  criminal,  most  of  whose 
exploits,  like  that  at  the  Black  Jack,  are  associated 
with  this  neighbourhood.  The  gabled  house  on 
the  left  in  one  of  our  sketches  was  sometimes  called 
Jack  Sheppard's  house,  having  been  perhaps  the 
residence  of  the  carpenter  to  whom  he  was  appren- 
ticed. Beyond  it,  on  the  same  side,  the  back  of  the 
Opera  Comique  can  be  discerned,  its  entrance  was 
in  the  Strand,  an  underground  passage  beneath 
Holywell  Street  connecting  it  with  the  theatre. 

Wych  Street  was  of  no  great  length,  being 
soon  merged  in  Drury  Lane.  Close  to  the  point 
of  junction,  on  the  right,  were  Craven  Buildings 
and  the  Olympic  Theatre,  built  where  once  stood 
the  residence  of  the  valiant  Earl  of  Craven,  whose 
devotion  to  the  ex-Queen  of  Bohemia  has  suggested 
to  some  a  possible  secret  marriage.  On  the  Strand 
side,  the  two  thoroughfares  were  divided  by  a 
narrow  street  called  Drury  Court,  once  Maypole 
Alley  :— 

Where  Drurj^  Lane  descends  into  the  Strand. 


Immediately  past  this,  in  Drury  Lane,  there  stood 
until  the  autumn  of  1890,  two  picturesque  old 
buildings.  The  plastered  one,  shown  to  the  right 
in  our  illustration,  was  for  many  years  known  as 
the  Cock  and  Pie  public-house,  and  appears  with 
that  name  in  a  frontispiece  to  the  European 
Magazine  for  1807.  It  was  turned  to  other  uses 
long  ago,  but  the  old  sign  still  existed  (although 
not  in  situ)  within  the  writer's  memory.  Apart 
from  its  quaintness,  the  house  is  worthy  of  record 
as  having  been  possibly,  one  may  say  probably, 
that  in  which  Nell  Gwyn  resided,  as  Pepys  tells 
us  in  the  following  words  : — "  May  1,  1667.  Saw 
pretty  Nelly  standing  at  her  lodgings'  door  in 
Drury  Lane  in  her  smock  sleeves  and  bodice 
looking  upon  one ;  she  seemed  a  mighty  pretty 
creature."  Peter  Cunningham,  in  his  Story  of 
Nell  Gwyn,  places  these  lodgings  at  the  top 
of  Maypole  Alley  over  against  the  gate  of 
Craven  House,  a  position  quite  coinciding  with 
that  of  the  old  Cock  and  Pie.  After  1838 
the  well-known  second-hand  bookseller,  George 
Stockley,  occupied  the  house.  He  convinced  him- 
self of  Nell's  connection  with  it,  and  his  opinion 
was  shared  by  the  late  Edward  Solly,  F.K.S.,  who 
wrote  an  interesting  letter  on  the  subject  to  Notes 


and  Queries,  In  spite  of  assertions  to  the  contrary, 
the  building  was  not  older  than  the  reign  of 
Charles  I.,  it  appears  to  be  marked  in  Faithorne's 
map  of  1658.  The  panelled  wooden  house  next 
door,  probably  coeval,  was  of  a  kind  now  almost 
extinct.  Drury  Lane,  which  in  the  greater  part 
of  the  seventeenth  century  had  been  aristocratic, 
gradually  became  disreputable,  beginning  (meta- 
phorically) to  go  downhill  about  the  time  of  Dutch 
William.  Gay  sums  up  his  opinion  of  it  in  the 
well-known  couplet : — 

O  may  thy  virtue  guard  thee  through  the  roads 
Of  Drury's  mazy  courts  and  dark  abodes. 

And  Pope,  to  whom  poverty  appeared  a  crime, 
has  satirised  the  man. 

Who  high  in  Drury  Lane, 
Lull'd  by  soft  zephyrs  through  the  broken  pane^ 
Rhymes  ere  he  wakes,  and  prints  before  Term  ends, 
Obhged  by  hunger  and  request  of  friends. 

A  few  years  ago  it  had  not  much  improved,  but, 
owing  to  recent  clearances  and  rebuildings,  what 
is  left  of  it  is  fast  becoming  highly  respectable  and 

We  will  now  say  a  few  words  about  the  Strand 
and  its  immediate  neighbourhood  before  noting  a 
few  houses  farther  west.     The  Strand,  one  of  the 


main  thoroughfares  which  connect  the  City  with 
the  west  end,  was  once  a  rough  country  road, 
deriving  its  name  from  the  fact  that  it  ran  along- 
side the  river,  like  Strand-on-the- Green  near  Kew 
Bridge.  A  petition  of  the  inhabitants  of  West- 
minster in  1315  declared  that  the  way  from 
Temple  Bar  to  Westminster  Palace  was  interrupted 
by  thickets,  and  thirty- eight  years  later  it  is 
declared  to  be  "dangerous  both  to  men  and 
carriages."  Even  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII.  it 
was  **full  of  pits  and  sloughs,  very  perilous  and 
noisome."  Nevertheless  great  personages  early 
took  up  their  quarters  on  the  south  or  water  side, 
most  of  them  before  the  Reformation  being  bishops. 
They  were  followed  by  the  leading  noblemen, 
whose  mansions  must  have  presented  a  splendid 
appearance,  with  their  gardens  running  down  to 
the  river.  But  in  course  of  time  fashion  moved 
west,  and  except  Northumberland  House  none  of 
them  survived  the  eighteenth  century,  though  the 
present  Somerset  House,  built  by  Sir  William 
Chambers  between  the  years  1776  and  1786, 
occupies  the  ground  of  the  Protector  Somerset's  old 
palace.  A  relic  of  the  much  older  Savoy  palace 
remains,  in  the  chapel  of  the  Savoy,  which,  however, 
after  the  fire  of  1864  was  almost  entirely  rebuilt. 


If  we  journey  along  the  Strand  to-day,  we  shall 
find  nothmg  aristocratic  except  here  and  there  a 
name,  but  a  few  old  buildings  still  linger,  and  its 
irregularity  has  hitherto  given  it  a  picturesque 
charm.  Those  who  wish  to  learn  something  of 
the  history  of  this  famous  street  will  find  the 
main  facts  connected  with  it  admirably  set  forth 
in  Wheatley  and  Cunningham's  London  Past  and 
Present ;  we  will  merely  point  out  something  of 
what  can  still  be  seen. 

Opposite  the  Law  Courts,  a  very  short  distance 
west  of  the  site  of  Temple  Bar,  are  a  couple  of  old 
houses,  one  of  them.  No.  229,  with  its  upper  stories 
projecting  over  the  street,  and  surmounted  by  a 
railed-in  platform,  has  a  very  quaint  appearance. 
As  late  as  the  year  1732,  the  road  from  Temple 
Bar  to  Essex  Street  was  called  Temple  Bar 
without,  as  appears  in  the  Parish  Clerks'  Survey. 
Essex  Street  has  a  tavern  numbered  40  and  41  and 
called  the  Essex  Head,  where,  towards  the  end  of 
his  life.  Dr.  Johnson  established  a  little  evening 
club,  the  landlord  of  the  house  being  Samuel 
Greaves,  an  old  servant  of  the  Thrales.  It  was 
rebuilt  not  many  years  ago.  At  the  south  end  of 
Essex  Street  are  steps  leading  down  to  the  Thames 
Embankment,  with  a  building  overhead  which  has, 



attached  to  it,  pilasters  of  some  architectural  pre- 
tension, relics  apparently  of  old  Essex  House. 
Returning  to  the  Strand,  and  making  our  way 
westward,  we  shall  find,  beneath  a  house  numbered 
162a,  a  passage  which  leads  to  a  narrow  lane 
winding  down  towards  the  Thames  and  to  what  is 
announced  on  a  board  as  "the  old  Roman  Spring 
Water  Plunge  Bath."  Strand  Lane  is  said  to  mark 
the  course  of  a  streamlet  which  crossed  the  great 
thoroughfare  under  Strand  Bridge,  and  until  the 
formation  of  the  Thames  Embankment,  it  used  to 
lead  to  a  landing-place.  On  its  east  side  in  a  small 
house  or  cottage  is  an  ancient  Roman  bath, 
which  in  almost  any  other  country  would  have 
been  preserved  with  the  utmost  care.  It  is,  or 
was,  composed  of  small  Roman  bricks,  is  some  13 
feet  long  by  6  feet  wide,  and  has  a  constant  supply 
of  clear  cold  water.  It  seems  incredible,  but  is 
unfortunately  the  fact,  that  some  years  ago,  not 
apparently  in  any  spirit  of  vandalism  but  simply 
through  ignorance,  this  unique  relic  was,  from  the 
archaeological  and  artistic  points  of  view,  almost 
completely  ruined.  Those  who  knew  it  before 
that  time  will  remember  that  on  entering  the 
house  there  was  a  room  to  the  right  containing  a 
bath  called   the  marble  bath,  said  to   have   been 


built  for  the  Earl  of  Essex.  In  the  year  1892  or 
early  in  1893,  the  site  of  the  Earl  of  Essex's  bath 
having  been  sold,  the  owner  of  the  Roman  bath 
took  out  the  marble  lining  and  placed  it  in  the 
latter,  his  work  being  finished  off  by  a  liberal 
application  of  Portland  cement,  so  that  now  only 
a  square  foot  or  so  of  the  once  highly  interest- 
ing Roman  bath  remains  uncovered.  A  row  of 
terrible  modern  tiles  has  also  been  placed  along 
the  adjoining  wall. 

In  the  Strand,  immediately  east  of  the  Strand 
Lane  Passage,  and  almost  opposite  to  the  east  end 
of  Gibbs's  Church  which  more  or  less  marks  the 
site  of  the  great  maypole  erected  in  1661,  there 
used  to  be  a  group  of  four  interesting  old  wooden 
houses.  Two  of  them,  Nos.  164a  and  165,  still 
remain,  but  those  to  the  east  were  pulled  down  in 
1893.  They  must  have  been  built,  one  imagines, 
before  the  Great  Fire,  for  after  that  event  a  pro- 
clamation forbade,  under  severe  penalties,  the  build- 
ing of  timber  houses  in  London.  Perhaps  even 
more  picturesque  are  two  gabled  houses  on  the 
north  side,  farther  west,  with  projecting  bays  round 
which  the  fine  eave  cornice  has  been  carried. 
They  adjoin  the  Adelphi  Theatre,  being  numbered 
413  and  414.    Beneath  is  the  passage  to  Heathcock 


Court,  the  entrance  to  which,  as  Peter  Cunning- 
ham tells  us,  was  distinguished  by  a  heath-cock  in 
a  handsome  shell  canopy,  taken  down  in  July  1844. 
Almost  immediately  to  the  west,  over  the  entrance 
to  Thatched  House  Court  and  New  Exchange 
Court,  stand  old  buildings  soon  to  be  cleared  away, 
and  here  are  the  headquarters  of  the  excellent 
Corps  of  Commissionaires,  founded  by  the  late  Sir 
Edward  Walter,  K.C.B.  The  name  of  the  latter 
court  recalls  the  former  existence  of  the  New 
Exchange  or  Britain's  Burse,  which  really  stood  on 
the  opposite  side  of  the  Strand,  covering  the  ground 
previously  occupied  by  the  stables  of  Durham 
House.  The  first  stone  of  it  was  laid  in  1608,  and 
there  the  wife  of  General  Monk,  who  died  Duchess 
of  Albemarle,  had,  in  the  time  of  her  first  husband 
Thomas  Radford,  carried  on  business  as  a  dealer  in 
wash-balls,  powder,  gloves,  etc.,  and  taught  plain 
work  to  girls.  An  engraving  of  the  New  Ex- 
change, by  John  Harris,  is  in  the  Crace  collection. 
Thatched  House  Court  took  its  name  from  a  half- 
timbered  building,  which  stood  between  the  two 
alleys  and  was  called  the  old  Thatched  House 
Tavern.  It  was  also  occasionally  spoken  of  as  Nell 
Gwyn's  dairy,  and  after  being  taken  over  for 
official  purposes  by  the  Commissionaires  was  rebuilt 


some  years  ago.  Immediately  north  of  Thatched 
House  Court  and  New  Exchange  Court  is  Maiden 
Lane,  where  stood  the  Cider  Cellars  Tavern,  which, 
likely  enough,  Thackeray  had  in  his  mind  when  he 
portrayed  the  Cave  of  Harmony,  or  was  it  the 
Back  Kitchen  ?  Doubtless,  however,  he  chiefly 
drew  his  experiences  of  this  particular  phase  of 
tavern  life  from  Evans's  at  the  north-west  corner 
of  Covent  Garden,  which  he  frequented  during  the 
reign  of  "  Paddy "  Green,  perhaps  earlier.  That 
fine  old  mansion,  once  the  residence  of  Edward 
Russell,  Earl  of  Oxford,  is  still  standing  apparently 
intact,  but  not  much  else  is  left  of  old  Covent 
Garden ;  the  destruction  in  1889  of  the  east  side, 
which  contained  the  Bedford  Hotel  with  the  Inigo 
Jones  piazza  below,  being  from  the  artist's  point 
of  view  a  sad  loss.  Having  touched  on  Evans's 
and  the  Cider  Cellars,  one  is  reminded  that  a  house 
which  provided  entertainments  of  a  somewhat 
similar  class  stood  formerly  in  Fountain  Court  on 
the  south  side  of  the  Strand,  now  quite  modernised 
and  called  Savoy  Buildings.  This  was  the  Coal 
Hole  Tavern,  previously  the  Unicorn,  where  about 
1826  the  Wolf  Club  used  to  meet,  of  which 
Edmund  Kean  was  a  leading  member.  Finally  it 
became  the  Occidental  Tavern,  and  fell  down  in 


1887.  Fountain  Court  was  called  after  the  Foun- 
tain Tavern,  the  predecessor  of  the  now  gorgeous 
Simpson's  which  gave  its  name  to  a  political  club 
opposed  to  Sir  Robert  Walpole.  At  No.  3 
Fountain  Court  William  Blake,  that  strange  man 
of  genius,  resided  during  his  later  years,  and  there 
he  died  in  1827. 

A  bare  enumeration  of  one  or  two  other  changes 
in  the  Strand  and  its  neighbourhood  must  suffice. 
The  Adelphi,  an  interesting  experiment  of  the 
Adam  brothers,  is  still  to  some  extent  as  they  left 
it,  though  the  Adelphi  Buildings,  which  originally 
encroached  on  the  Thames,  are  now  divided  from 
it  by  the  Embankment  Garden,  and  look  dwarfed 
alongside  of  the  huge  Savoy  and  Cecil  Hotels. 
At  No.  5  of  the  terrace  (now  No.  4)  David  Garrick 
lived  for  some  years,  and  his  widow  continued  to 
occupy  it  until  her  death  in  1822.  The  ceiling  of 
the  front  drawing-room  was  decorated  by  Zucchi. 

Buckingham  Street  is  a  memento  of  George 
Villiers,  Duke  of  Buckingham,  under  whose  direc- 
tion it  was  built  with  the  adjoining  streets,  about 
1774-75,  on  the  site  of  York  House  and  grounds. 
Strype  calls  it  "  a  spacious  street  with  good  houses, 
well  inhabited  by  gentry,  especially  those  on  each 
side  fronting  the  Thames.     The  large  house  at  the 


bottom  of  the  street  on  the  east  side  was  occupied 
by  Peter  the  Great,  and  here  is  a  room  on  the  first 
floor  with  a  fine  plastered  and  painted  ceiling ;  a 
smaller  painted  ceiling  decorates  a  room  on  the 
ground  floor.  At  the  top  of  this  house  David 
Copperfield  lodged  for  a  time  in  "  a  singularly 
desirable  and  compact  set  of  chambers  with  a  view 
of  the  river,''  and  he  then  occasionally  had  a  plunge 
in  the  Roman  bath.  It  was  thought  by  the  late 
Mr.  F.  G.  Kit  ton  that  Charles  Dickens,  who  thus 
alludes  to  the  rooms  in  Buckingham  Street,  had 
himself  stayed  there.  On  this  floor  William  Black 
the  novelist  certainly  resided.  An  ominous  board 
lately  put  up  in  front  of  this  building  seems  to 
foretell  that  it  may  not  long  survive.  Opposite, 
in  a  house  since  rebuilt  and  numbered  14,  Samuel 
Pepys,  the  Diarist  lived,  succeeding  his  friend, 
William  Hewer.  W.  Etty,  R.A.,  occupied 
chambers  and  a  painting-room  in  the  present  house  ; 
and  Stanfield,  the  marine  and  landscape  painter, 
also  had  rooms  there.  At  the  end  of  Buckingham 
Street,  in  the  Embankment  Garden,  stands  that 
good  piece  of  architecture,  York  Watergate,  all 
that  is  left  of  the  house  which  seems  to  have  been 
chiefly  designed  for  the  first  Duke  of  Buckingham 
of  the  Villiers   family.      This   Watergate,    a  well- 


proportioned  structure,  was  built  by  Nicholas 
Stone,  master  mason,  who  claimed  the  design, 
which  has  been  attributed  to  Gerbier,  and  oftener 
to  Inigo  Jones.  Being  now  in  a  hollow  and  some 
distance  from  the  river,  it  is  seen  to  far  less 
advantage  than  was  originally  the  case. 

Before  our  arrival  at  Charing  Cross  it  may  be 
observed  that,  at  the  time  of  writing.  No.  59,  the 
unpretentious  house  in  which  for  so  many  years 
Messrs.  Coutts  and  Co.  carried  on  their  business,  is 
being  altered  by  the  London  County  Council  into 
whose  hands  it  has  come.  It  was  designed  by  the 
brothers  Adam  for  old  Mr.  Coutts,  the  banker, 
who  married  Miss  Mellon,  afterwards  Duchess  of 
St.  Albans,  and  contained  some  marble  mantel- 
pieces of  the  Cipriani  and  Bacon  schools.  Here 
the  New  Exchange  had  previously  stood.  It  is  per- 
haps needless  to  add  that  the  house  lately  built  for 
this  historic  firm  occupies  the  site  of  the  Lowther 
Arcade,  which  had  been  formed  in  1830-32. 

One  may  still  say  of  Charing  Cross  what  was 
said  by  Dr.  Johnson  a  hundred  and  thirty  years 
ago,  that  here  is  "the  full  tide  of  human  existence." 
But  if  he  could  come  back  to  life  and  revisit  this 
spot,  the  only  object  he  would  recognise  is  Le 
Suer's    fine    statue    of    Charles    I.      Until    1874, 


Northumberland  House,  the  last  of  the  great 
Strand  mansions,  remained.  It  was  originally 
built  for  Henry  Howard,  Earl  of  Northampton, 
about  the  year  1605,  and  passed  by  marriage  to 
the  Percy  family.  The  lion  which  formed  so 
prominent  an  object  on  the  Strand  front  was 
erected  in  1752,  and  now  adorns  the  river  front  of 
Syon  House. 

Our  work  is  now  drawing  towards  a  close,  and, 
as  we  make  our  way  west,  we  feel  more  and  more 
how  impossible  it  is  within  the  limitations  of  a 
single  volume  to  describe  the  vast  majority  of 
interesting  London  buildings  which  have  been 
destroyed  of  late  years  or  are  now  threatened.  In 
Craig's  Court,  within  a  stone's  throw  of  Charing 
Cross,  is  that  fine  eighteenth  -  century  mansion 
Harrington  House,  which  at  the  time  of  writing 
is  in  imminent  peril.  The  Spring  Gardens  which 
we  remember,  descendant  of  a  veritable  garden, 
has  ceased  to  exist,  the  Mall  has  been  transmuted, 
the  once  delightful  region  of  Great  College  Street, 
Westminster,  where  gentlefolks  of  moderate  means 
could  dwell  in  peace  among  congenial  surroundings, 
is  almost  entirely  swept  away.  In  Pall  Mall, 
Schomberg  House,  now  part  of  the  War  Office, 
can   hardly  long   survive,  Gloucester   House   has 



just   disappeared.     The   list   might   be   continued 
almost  indefinitely. 

All  that  we  can  now  do  is  to  give  an  account  of 
the  particular  buildings  which  here  are  figured  in 
this  volume,  and  we  will  begin  with  one  which  for- 
tunately is  not  at  present  threatened,  but  we  must 
not  forget  that  from  time  to  time  attacks  have  been 
made  on  it  because  it  is  said  to  be  old-fashioned  and 
inconvenient.  In  any  case,  a  most  historic  house  is 
No.  10  Downing  Street,  facing  the  Foreign  Office, 
which  has  been  the  official  home  of  the  first  Lord 
of  the  Treasury  ever  since  Sir  Robert  Walpole 
moved  into  it  from  St.  James's  Square  in  1735.  It 
had  belonged  to  the  Crown,  and  had  been  granted 
by  George  I.  to  Baron  Bothmar,  the  Hanoverian 
minister,  for  life.  The  residence  really  consists  of 
two  houses  with  a  covered  way  between  them. 
That  which  looks  towards  the  street  is  a  plain 
structure,  resembling  No.  11.  The  building  with 
which  it  is  incorporated  stands  in  a  garden  which 
had  once  no  doubt  formed  part  of  St.  James's 
Park,  and  on  a  misty  morning  in*  spring,  one 
might  imagine  it  to  be  on  the  outskirts  of  some 
peaceful  country  town.  In  the  second  volume  of 
the  Record  published  by  the  London  Topo- 
graphical Society,  Mr.  Walter  Spiers,  now  Soane 


Curator,  has  proved  that  this  house  was  designed 
originally  by  Wren,  it  has  since,  however,  been 
much  altered.  At  the  back  was  the  famous  Cock- 
pit, its  site  now  covered  by  Kent's  Treasury  build- 
ings. In  the  year  1888,  when  Mr.  W.  H.  Smith 
was  occupying  No.  10  Downing  Street,  I  was 
privileged  to  do  a  series  of  paintings  there,  two  of 
which  have  been  reproduced  for  this  book.  The 
first  view  shows  the  south  side,  the  part  which 
faces  Downing  Street  being  discernible  behind  a 
tree  on  the  right ;  the  building  to  the  left  is  the 
Treasury.  I  have  ventured  to  clothe  the  little 
figures  in  costumes  which  harmonise  more  with 
the  old  place  than  the  frock  coats  and  trousers  of 
the  present  day.  The  windows  opening  on  to  the 
terrace  belong  to  the  famous  cabinet  room,  where 
Pitt  and  Sir  Robert  Peel,  Disraeli,  Gladstone,  and 
Palmerston,  have  often  sat.  Of  late  years,  however, 
the  cabinet  councils  have  been  held  elsewhere.  The 
second  illustration  shows  the  garden,  the  house  being 
on  the  left  side,  and  the  Foreign  Office  in  the  middle 
distance.  In  the  large  reception  room  on  the  first 
floor  are  a  series  of  interesting  portraits,  the  best 
perhaps  being  that  of  Richard  Weston,  Earl  of 
Portland,  Lord  High  Treasurer  in  1633.  In  his 
speech  delivered   at   the   Lord   Mayor's   banquet, 


November  9,  1900,  Mr.  Choate,  the  American 
ambassador,  gave  an  interesting  account,  by  no 
means  complimentary,  of  Sir  George  Downing 
(partly  educated  at  Harvard  College)  who  built 
the  street  named  after  him,  which  Mr.  Choate 
described  as  "  the  smallest  and,  at  the  same  time, 
the  greatest  street  in  the  world,  because  it  lies  at 
the  hub  of  the  gigantic  wheel  which  encircles  the 
globe  under  the  name  of  the  British  Empire." 

Westminster  was  formerly  endowed  with  various 
quaint  almshouses  which  have  gradually  been 
altered  or  improved  away.  One  of  the  last,  and 
perhaps  the  most  attractive,  was  Emanuel  Hospital 
(sometimes  called  Dacre's  almshouses),  on  the  west 
side  of  James  Street,  Westminster,  founded 
pursuant  to  the  will  of  Anne,  Lady  Dacre,  widow 
of  Gregory,  last  Lord  Dacre  of  the  south,  and 
sister  of  Thomas  Sackville,  Earl  of  Dorset,  the 
poet,  "towards  the  relief  of  aged  people,  and 
bringing  up  of  children  in  virtue  and  good  and 
laudable  acts  in  the  same  hospital."  On  the  death 
in  1623  of  the  last  surviving  executor  of  Lady 
Dacre,  the  guardianship  of  the  hospital  descended, 
by  the  Charter  of  Incorporation,  to  the  Lord 
Mayor  and  Aldermen  of  the  City  of  London.  The 
hospital  was   rebuilt   during   the  reign  of  Queen 


Anne,  and  afforded  protection  to  a  varying  number 
of  old  men  and  women  (formerly  twenty-four) 
who  belonged  to  Westminster,  Chelsea,  or  Hayes 
in  Middlesex.  The  schools  had  been  disconnected 
with  it,  and  formed  a  portion  of  the  Westminster 
United  School  after  1873.  In  spite  of  much 
opposition  from  those  who  loved  the  picturesque 
group  of  buildings,  Emanuel  Hospital  was  closed 
in  1892.  The  site  was  afterwards  sold  for  £37,500, 
a  new  scheme  being  drawn  up  for  the  regulation 
of  the  charity. 

Our  illustration  gives  a  general  view  of  the 
hospital.  In  the  centre,  surmounted  by  a  little 
clock  turret  and  showing  a  pediment  with  the 
Dacre  arms,  is  the  chapel  whence  people  are  issuing 
or  have  issued,  the  front  figure,  with  staff,  gown, 
and  gold-laced  hat,  being  that  of  an  almsman  who 
officiated  as  warden.  According  to  the  original 
Statutes,  the  warden  had  to  "  keep  the  key  of  the 
porch  or  foregate  of  the  ho  spit  all,"  which  was  to 
be  "  locked  at  eight  of  the  clock  at  night,  and  kept 
locked  untill  six  in  the  morning,  from  the  feast  of 
All  Saynts  untill  the  purificacon  of  the  blessed 
Virgin  Mary,  and  at  nyne  in  the  night,  untill  fyve 
in  ye  morning,  for  the  residue  of  the  whole  year." 
He  was  also  to  keep  the  key  of  the  chapel  "to 


foresee  that  fyre  or  candle  bee  not  dangerously 
used,  to  require  and  exact  of  each  one  of  the  poor 
bretheren  and  sisters  th'  observacon  of  the  ordinances 
and  statutes,  and  from  tyme  to  tyme  gently  to 
admonish  such  as  bee  negligent  and  faultie,  or  (if 
the  qualitie  of  the  fault  or  their  perseverance  in 
disorder  so  require)  to  complayn  of  the  delinquents 
to  the  governors  of  the  said  hospital!."  The 
master,  the  last  of  whom  was  the  Rev.  Joseph 
Maskell,  historian  of  the  Church  of  All  Hallows, 
Barking,  lived  close  to  the  chapel,  and  the  old  men 
in  the  tenements  to  the  left,  with  a  garden  of 
their  own  behind.  The  women  were  housed  on 
the  right  hand  side.  The  entrance,  facing  James 
Street,  had  handsome  wrought-iron  gates.  In  the 
old  church  at  Chelsea  there  is  a  stately  monu- 
ment, with  recumbent  figures,  to  Lord  and  Lady 



The  City's  sure  in  Progresse  I  surmise. 

Or  going  to  revell  it  in  some  disorder. 
Without  the  Walls,  without  the  Liberties, 

Where  she  neede  fear  noe  Mayor  nor  Recorder. 

Thomas  Freeman,  London's  Progresse  (1614). 

This,  our  last  chapter,  must  be  even  more  frag- 
mentary than  the  previous  one.  We  hope  that  it 
is  a  mere  instahnent  of  further  efforts  to  set  forth 
in  detail  the  vast  changes  which  have  taken  place 
since  the  speculative  builder  conquered  and  annexed 
what  were  a  few  years  ago  the  western  suburbs. 
The  following  brief  notes  relate  chiefly  to  houses 
of  which  there  are  illustrations.  We  will  begin 
near  the  river,  working  our  way  west  and  north. 

Macaulay  reminds  us  that,  towards  the  end  of 
the  reign  of  Charles  II.  Chelsea  was  "a  quiet 
country  village,  with  about  a  thousand  inhabitants, 
the  baptisms  averaging  little  more  than  forty  in 



the  year."  It  was,  however,  or  had  been,  a  village 
of  palaces.  Now,  although  still  numbering  famous 
people  among  its  inhabitants,  it  is  merely  a  part 
of  the  huge  mass  of  London.  The  picturesque 
wooden  bridge  has  gone,  old  taverns  and  wharves 
have  been  cleared  away  for  the  Embankment,  Cre- 
morne  Gardens  no  longer  furnish  subjects  for 
"nocturnes"  or  "harmonies,"  but  evening  mist 
still  "  clothes  the  riverside  with  poetry  as  with  a 
veil,"  and  something  of  the  history  of  the  region 
may  still  be  read  in  the  ancient  Church,  the  Physic 
Garden,  in  Chelsea  Hospital,  and  various  private 
dwellings,  such  as  Lindsey  House,  like  the  house 
of  similar  name  in  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields,  a  former 
home  of  the  Berties. 

Our  mission,  we  feel,  is  here  to  record  the  less 
known  buildings  which  are  in  danger  of  being 
forgotten.  One  of  these  was  the  old  Six  Bells 
public -house  in  the  King's  Road,  the  back  of 
which,  with  its  still  extant  bowling-green,  was 
very  picturesque.  The  present  ambitious  struc- 
ture, with  the  same  sign,  replaced  it  in  1901. 
Another  quaint  building  was  the  old  fish  shop 
in  that  part  of  Cheyne  Walk  which  used  to  be 
known  as  Lombard  Street.  It  was  four  doors 
west   of  a  tavern  called  the  Rising  Sun,  and  in 




former  years  had  been  a  freehold  with  right  of 
pasturage  on  the  long  extinct  Chelsea  Common. 
In  front  of  the  gable  was  a  plaster  or  terra-cotta 
medallion,  with  a  head  in  relief  which  might  have 
been  copied  from  a  classical  coin.  This  belonged 
to  a  style  of  decoration  common  in  the  seventeenth 
century.  The  writer  has  before  him  a  view  dated 
1792  of  a  building  then  on  Tower  Hill  with  similar 
medallions.  Sometimes  the  heads  of  Roman 
emperors  were  thus  placed,  sometimes  the  Cardinal 
Virtues  and  other  emblematic  figures.  The  medal- 
lion here  depicted  is  now  in  the  Chelsea  Free 
Library.  The  fish  shop  in  Cheyne  Walk,  long 
kept  by  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Maunder,  was  pulled  down 
in  November  1892.  There  is  an  etching,  also  a 
lithograph,  of  the  lower  part,  by  J.  M.  Whistler, 
who  spent  so  many  years  of  his  life  in  Chelsea,  and 
did  so  much  of  his  finest  work  there.  It  is  a 
touching  fact  that  he  came  back  at  the  end  to  a 
place  he  must  have  loved,  and  died,  July  17,  1903, 
in  a  house  built  on  this  very  site. 

Farther  west,  no  great  distance  from  the  site  of 
Cremorne  Gardens,  and  next  but  one  to  a  tavern 
called  the  Aquatic,  which  is  now,  we  believe,  the 
goal  of  the  race  for  Doggett's  Coat  and  Badge, 
stands  a  cottage,  one  of  a  pair  now  joined  together 



and  numbered  118  Cheyne  Walk,  to  which  in  his 
old  age,  J.  W.  M.  Turner,  the  great  landscape 
painter,  used  to  retire  from  his  house  in  Queen 
Anne  Street.  He,  no  doubt,  selected  the  humble 
dwelling  at  Chelsea  chiefly  because  from  its  low 
roof,  still  protected  by  a  wrought-iron  railing  which 
he  caused  to  be  placed  there,  he  got  a  fine  view  of 
Chelsea  Reach,  now  obscured  by  the  modern  house 
next  door  which  projects  in  front.  For  the  sake  of 
privacy  he  took  the  name  of  the  landlady,  and  was 
known  in  the  neighbourhood  as  Mr.  Booth, 
Admiral  Booth,  or  "  Puggy  "  Booth.  The  cottage 
is  now  somewhat  below  the  level  of  the  roadway  ; 
an  old  inhabitant,  formerly  a  waterman,  told  the 
writer  that  fifty  or  sixty  years  ago  it  was  only 
separated  from  the  Thames  by  a  raised  path. 
Turner  died  here  December  19,  1851,  in  a  room, 
the  window  of  which  is  immediately  below  the  rail- 
ing. Afterwards,  for  many  years,  the  place  re- 
mained outwardly  in  much  the  same  condition  as 
when  he  left  it.  By  degrees  it  became  dilapidated, 
the  little  trees  in  front  disappeared,  and  in  1895 
there  was  an  ominous  announcement  that  the 
property  was  to  be  sold  for  building  purposes. 
The  late  Mrs.  Haweis  made  efforts  to  save  it,  and 
there  was  a  correspondence  on  the  subject  in  the 




Times,  After  remaining  empty  and  dilapidated 
for  some  months,  the  two  cottages  were  bought 
and  judiciously  restored  by  one  who  valued 
Turner's  memory.  The  accompanying  sketch  re- 
presents them  some  years  before  the  restoration, 
and  very  much  as  they  were  in  his  time. 

Continuing  west  along  the  river  one  soon  comes 
to  the  Cremorne  Arms  tavern,  close  to  which 
is  the  site  of  Cremorne  Gardens,  mostly  built 
over,  in  part  absorbed  by  a  firm  of  nurserymen, 
on  whose  premises,  it  is  said,  the  entrance  to 
the  "  hermit's  cave  "  may  still  be  seen,  to  explore 
the  mysteries  of  which  we  have  before  now  ex- 
pended a  superfluous  shilling.  Farther  on  at  no 
great  distance  is  Sandford  Creek,  connected  with 
the  river  and  separating  the  parishes  of  Chelsea 
and  Fulham.  Another  form  of  the  name  occurs 
in  Stamford  Bridge,  not  far  off,  which  now  spans 
the  railroad.  A  rivulet  or  watercourse  which, 
according  to  Mr.  Feret,  rose  somewhere  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  the  present  Kensal  Green  Ceme- 
tery, once  found  its  way  into  the  Thames  at 
Sandford  Creek.  In  its  southern  part  it  divided 
Fulham  Parish  first  from  Kensington,  and  south  of 
Stamford  Bridge  from  Chelsea.  In  1827-28  this 
lower   portion  was  widened  and  formed   into  the 


Kensington  Canal,  about  two  miles  in  length,  and 
giving  passage  to  vessels  of  100  tons  burden.  In 
1845,  except  for  a  short  distance  at  the  mouth,  it 
was  drained  and  turned  into  a  railway  line.  By 
the  creek,  at  Sand's  End  as  it  was  called,  the 
most  noteworthy  building  was  Sandford  House, 
not  yet  destroyed  though  now  partly  shut  up 
and  dilapidated,  which  belongs  to  the  Gas  Light 
and  Coke  Company  (formerly  the  Imperial  Gas 
Company)  and  is  included  in  their  premises. 
Mr.  Feret,  whose  Fulham  Old  and  New,  pub- 
lished in  1900,  is  a  monument  of  patient  industry, 
with  the  help  of  former  historians  has  told 
us  what  is  worth  telling  about  this  ancient 
manor  house.  In  1549  the  Dean,  and  Chapter  of 
Westminster  conveyed  Sandford  Manor  to  King 
Edward  VI.,  whose  sister  Mary  sold  it  in  1558  to 
William  Maynard,  citizen  and  merchant  of  London. 
In  1630  Sir  William  Maynard,  son  of  the  last- 
named  person,  died  in  Ireland,  being  then  possessed 
of  this  manor.  A  halo  of  romance  has  attached 
itself  to  the  house  because  of  Nell  Gwyn's  sup- 
posed connection  with  it.  We  have  already 
mentioned  the  fact  that  she  undoubtedly  lodged 
in  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields  and  Drury  Lane,  but  the 
best   authorities  fail  to  trace  her  to  Sand's  End, 


for  although  Faulkner  says  positively  that  she 
resided  at  Sandford  Manor  House,  his  only 
evidence  is  that  when  he  wrote  in  1812  **a 
medallion  in  plaster  of  the  fair  Eleanor"  had  some 
years  previously  been  found  on  the  estate  and  was 
then  in  possession  of  the  owner.  An  archaic 
thimble  was  later  found  there  with  the  initials 
N.  G.,  and  various  other  relics. 

The  Domestic  Intelligencer  for  August  5,  1679, 
contains  the  following  item  of  information  : — 

"We  hear  that  Madame  Ellen  Gywn's  mother,  sitting 
lately  by  the  water  side  at  her  house  by  the  neat -houses, 
near  Chelsey,  fell  accidentally  into  the  water  and  was 

Mr.  Feret  suggests  that  this  accident  may 
possibly  have  happened  here,  and  not  on  the  low 
ground  near  the  Thames  side  at  Pimlico,  as  is 
generally  supposed.  A  public-house  near  this  spot 
still  recalls  Nell  Gwyn's  name,  and  her  memory  is 
cherished  in  the  neighbourhood. 

Another  tradition  connects  Sandford  Manor 
House  with  the  famous  Joseph  Addison,  and 
doubtless  he  lived  occasionally  at  Sand's  End, 
the  hamlet  by  the  creek,  but  there  is  no  evidence 
whatever  that  his  dwelling  was  actually  the  Manor 
House.     From   "Sandy  End"  in   1708  he   wrote 


several  letters  containing  pleasant  proof  of  the  then 
rural  character  of  the  neighbourhood,  to  the  young 
Earl  of  Warwick  and  Holland,  whose  mother  he 
afterwards  married.  That  year  Sir  Richard  Steele 
in  a  note  written  at  Sand's  End  to  his  wife,  says, 
**I  am  come  hither  to  dinner  with  Mr.  Addison 
and  Mr.  Clay." 

The  Manor  House  remained  in  the  possession 
of  the  Maynard  family  until  Robert  Maynard  died 
without  issue  in  1756.  It  afterwards  passed  to 
female  relatives  and  became  identified  with  trade 
and  manufacture.  In  1762  a  factory  for  the 
making  of  saltpetre  was  established  here,  the 
managers  being  apparently  Frenchmen.  In  1790 
a  pottery  business  was  moved  to  this  house  from 
Little  Cheyne  Row,  Chelsea;  it  continued  until 
1798,  shortly  after  which  date  the  premises  were 
adapted  for  the  purpose  of  manufacturing  cloth. 
Afterwards  they  were  successively  used  for  the 
business  of  cooperage  and  of  bleach  and  dye  works, 
until  in  1824  the  Imperial  Gas  Company  purchased 
the  Sandford  Manor  House  property,  the  gasworks 
now  covering  no  less  than  twenty-eight  acres.  The 
ancient  house  is  now  plaster  fronted,  and  is  divided 
into  two  dwellings,  being  approached  through  a 
short  garden.     In   the  more   interesting  portion. 


dismantled  some  time  ago,  dwelt  the  late  Mr. 
McMinn,  an  official  of  the  Gas  Company  for  over 
fifty  years.  It  has  a  fine  well  staircase,  here  shown, 
which  from  the  character  of  the  woodwork  seems 
to  be  as  old  as  the  first  half  of  the  seventeenth 
century.  This  staircase  is  handsomely  panelled ; 
a  twisted  iron  rod  has  been  inserted  in  one  of  the 
newels  for  strengthening  purposes.  The  front  of 
the  house  was  modernised  about  the  year  1844, 
but  the  back  with  its  tiled  roof  is  still  quite  old 
fashioned.  Of  this  we  have  given  a  view  from 
the  pretty  back  garden,  which  a  few  years  ago  was 
well  kept  up.  The  house  is  oblong  in  plan,  but 
this  side  may  originally  have  had  shallow  wings, 
the  brickwork  in  the  centre  being  comparatively 

Kensington,  although  quite  as  interesting  as 
its  southern  neighbour,  perhaps  emerged  from 
obscurity  at  a  somewhat  later  date.  One  seems 
naturally  to  apply  to  it  Leigh  Hunt's  appropriate 
phrase,  "the  old  court  suburb."  It  is,  however, 
mentioned  in  Doomsday,  as  Chenesitun,  when  it 
contained  vineyards,  and  Aubrey  de  Vere  held  it 
of  the  Bishop  of  Coutances.  Lysons,  writing  in 
1795,  says  that  the  parish  contains  about  1910 
acres  of  land,  about  half  of  which  is  pasture  and 


meadow,  about  360  acres  are  arable  land  for  corn 
only,  about  230  in  market  gardens,  about  260 
cultivated  sometimes  for  corn,  sometimes  for 
garden  crops,  and  100  acres  of  nursery  ground. 

The  parish  register  begins  in  the  year  1539,  and 
some  of  the  more  interesting  entries  are  given  in 
Faulkner's  History  of  Kensington^  among  them  the 
baptism  in  1647  of  John  and  William,  sons  of 
Colonel  John  Lambert,  "at  Sir  William  Lister's 
house  of  Coldhearne,"  Earl's  Court.  This  was 
the  General  Lambert  who  cut  such  a  conspicuous 
figure  during  the  Commonwealth.  He  married 
Sir  William  Lister's  daughter,  and,  after  the  death 
of  his  father-in-law,  resided  in  the  house  until  about 
the  year  1657.  After  the  Restoration  he  was 
exiled  to  Guernsey  and  died  a  prisoner  in  1683. 
The  house,  latterly  known  as  Coleherne  Court, 
with  its  extensive  garden,  survived  until  the  year 
1900.  Its  last  occupants  were  members  of  the 
Tattersall  family.  Another  interesting  house  was 
that  built  by  John  Hunter,  the  famous  surgeon, 
on  land  bought  of  the  Earl  of  Warwick.  It  was 
destroyed  in  1886.  The  writer  was  once  privileged 
to  glance  at  the  Kensington  parish  books,  and 
failed  to  discover  an  earlier  assessment  than  that  of 
June  28,  1683,  which  produced  £62  "  towards  the 


maintenance  of  the  pension  poor."  There  were 
then  eighty-five  ratepayers,  the  one  who  paid  most 
being  the  Countess  of  Holland  and  Warwick,  who 
was  rated  at  £3 :  6s.,  while  Lady  Campden  of 
Campden  House  had  to  pay  £2 :  10s.,  the  next 
being  Lady  Sheffield  assessed  at  £l  :11  :6  ;  Lady 
Grace  Pierrepoint,  £l :  10s. ;  and  the  Earl  of  Craven, 
whose  house  was  at  Kensington  Gravel  Pits,  £l. 
Later,  losses  by  "  dipt "  money  are  recorded.  In 
1698  we  read  of  Kensington  Wells,  where  water 
was  supplied  for  medicinal  purposes,  and  the  name 
appears  for  some  years.  They  were  in  what  was 
called  the  West  Town.  By  the  year  1713  the 
assessment  for  the  parish  had  been  raised  to 
£381  : 6  :  9.  Kensington  Palace,  which  is  really 
in  the  parish  of  St.  Margaret's,  Westminster,  was 
bought  for  18,000  guineas  from  the  Earl  of 
Nottingham,  son  of  the  Lord  Chancellor,  by  King 
William  III.  very  soon  after  he  came  to  the  throne. 
It  has  apparently  remains  of  the  original  house, 
but  the  most  interesting  portion  is  that  designed 
by  Wren.  There  are  large  subsequent  additions 
by  that  mediocre  architect,  William  Kent. 

Modern  South  Kensington  sprang,  in  fact,  from 
the  Great  Exhibition  of  1851.  It  is  mostly  in  the 
old  hamlet  of  Brompton  which  always  belonged  to 



Kensington,  but  part  is  in  St.  Margaret's,  West- 
minster. A  large  sum  having  been  made  out  of 
the  Exhibition,  afterwards  supplemented  by  parlia- 
ment, the  commissioners  bought  landed  property 
on  which  the  chief  public  buildings  of  South 
Kensington  stand.  The  Victoria  and  Albert 
Museum,  now,  after  many  years,  being  completed 
on  an  important  scale,  is  partly  on  the  Villars  and 
partly  on  the  Harrington  estate.  This  latter  came  to 
the  Earls  of  Harrington  by  marriage,  being  part  of 
the  land  attached  to  the  ancient  Hale  House,  some- 
times called  Cromwell  House.  The  Gore  House 
estate  was  also  acquired  from  the  Commissioners, 
and  a  small  piece  of  land  from  the  trustees  of 
Smith's  Charity.  It  is  perhaps  superfluous  to  add 
that  for  thirteen  years,  until  her  financial  ruin  in 
1849,  Gore  House  was  the  home  of  the  "most 
gorgeous  "  Countess  of  Blessington,  and  there  she 
gathered  round  her  many  distinguished  men.  She 
spoke  of  it  as  her  "  country  house,"  and  said  that 
the  grounds,  three  acres  in  extent,  were  "full  of 
lilacs,  laburnum,  nightingales,  and  swallows."  The 
nucleus  of  the  museum  was  the  group  of  iron  build- 
ings vulgarly  known  as  the  Brompton  Boilers,  thus 
foreshadowed  in  Sir  Henry  Cole's  reminiscences  : 
— "June  14,  1855.     To  Buckingham  Palace.     Met 


Lord  Stanley,  Sir  William  Cubitt  and  Bo  wring, 
who  came  about  erecting  an  iron  house  at  Kens- 
ington." As  time  went  on  the  old  houses  here 
depicted  were  taken  over  and  absorbed  by  the 
establishment.  They  stood  in  a  garden  shaded  by 
fine  trees,  and  one  of  them  had  on  a  rain-pipe  the 
date  1716.  Doubtless,  if  their  walls  could  have 
spoken  they  might  have  told  us  some  interesting 
tales.  Nothing,  however,  of  special  interest  has 
come  to  the  writer's  knowledge  concerning  their 
earlier  history.  In  later  years  various  officials  there 
found  a  home,  among  them  Captain  Fowke  and  Sir 
John  Donnelly,  who  occupied  the  central  house 
known  as  the  "  Cottage,"  which  had  a  good  staircase 
and  other  pleasant  architectural  features.  These 
buildings  were  destroyed  about  the  end  of  1899. 

In  his  book  called  Four  Generations  of  a 
Literary  Family,  Mr.  W.  C.  Hazlitt  thus  speaks  of 
the  district  in  which  the  museum  stands.  "The 
region  now  incorporated  in  South  Kensington,  but 
formerly  known  as  Old  Brompton,  was  once  and 
long  a  country  village  or  little  more.  The  ancient 
mansions  which  abounded  there  (in  my  youth),  the 
historical  sites  or  records,  the  delightful  residences 
in  grounds,  the  market  gardens,  and  best  of  all  the 
quaint  old  Vale  have  vanished  like  a  dream."     The 


parish,  however,  is  still  rich  in  the  possession  of 
Holland  House,  which  for  generations  after  it 
came  into  the  hands  of  the  Fox  family  was  such 
an  important  social  and  political  centre,  and  is 
to-day  the  most  stately  of  London  residences. 
Campden  Hill  even  now  contains  large  private 
gardens  and  a  few  historic  houses,  while  until 
quite  recently  several  old  mansions  in  the  town 
itself  remained  intact.  Of  these  Scarsdale  House 
was  perhaps  the  most  interesting.  It  stands,  or 
stood,  a  little  way  back,  near  the  north-east  corner 
of  Wright's  Lane,  within  a  stone's  throw  of  the 
Kensington  High  Street  railway  station.  Of  its 
early  history  little  is  known,  but  the  main  part  of 
the  building  was  perhaps  coeval  with  Kensington 
Square.  If  called  Scarsdale  House  in  its  earlier 
days,  the  name  may  have  come  from  Nicholas 
Leke,  Earl  of  Scarsdale,  of  whom  Pope  wrote  : — 

Each  mortal  has  his  pleasure — none  deny 
Scarsdale  his  bottle,  Darty  his  ham-pie. 

One  would  prefer,  however,  to  connect  it  always 
with  the  Curzon  family.  I  am  told  by  a  descendant 
that  in  all  probability  the  house  first  belonged  to 
John  Curzon,  who  is  perhaps  best  remembered  as 
having  owned  a  horse  of  Eastern  blood,  one  of  the 
progenitors  of  the  modern  racehorse.     For  a  short 



time  Lord  Barnard  occupied  it ;  in  1721  William 
Curzon  was  living  here,  and  was  one  of  the  largest 
contributors  to  the  parish  poor-rate.  Early  in  last 
century  it  was  occupied  by  a  ladies'  boarding  school, 
but  many  years  ago  became  the  residence  of  the 
Honourable  Edward  Curzon  (second  son  of  Mr. 
Robert  Curzon  and  Lady  de  la  Zouche),  who 
bought  it  from  his  cousin.  Lord  Scarsdale.  The 
Jacobean  mantelpieces,  formerly  in  the  drawing- 
room,  once  graced  the  historic  mansion  of  Loseley. 
Those  who  desire  to  call  to  mind  this  ideal 
dwelling  and  its  surroundings,  as  they  existed  a 
generation  ago,  had  best  consult  Miss  Thackeray, 
for  Scarsdale  House  must  always  live  in  the  pages 
of  Old  Kensington.  This  was  Lady  Sarah's  home, 
"with  its  many  windows  dazzling  as  the  sun 
travelled  across  the  old-fashioned  housetops,"  and 
here  was  the  room  with  the  blue  tiles  which  Lady 
Sarah's  husband  brought  from  the  Hague  the  year 
before  he  died.  The  garden  is  now  no  more, 
though  part  of  its  ground  can  still  be  traced,  and 
the  house,  or  a  mutilated  remnant  of  it,  forms  part 
of  a  great  commercial  establishment  facing  the 
High  Street.  On  the  opposite  side  of  Wright's 
Lane  stood  the  old-fashioned  "Terrace,"  facing 
the  High  Street,  with  delightful  gardens  at  the 


back,  all  swept  away  in   1893.      At  No.  6  John 
Leech  lived  and  died. 

As  time  goes  on  Kensington  Square  is  some- 
what losing  its  look  of  old-fashioned  seclusion.  It 
has  had  many  notable  and  a  few  notorious  in- 
habitants. The  Duchess  of  Mazarin  seems  to  have 
been  among  the  earliest  of  the  latter  class  ;  she  was 
here  apparently  in  1692,  but  by  1695  she  had 
migrated  to  Chelsea,  where  she  had  a  house  in 
Paradise  Row,  and  in  that  and  subsequent  years 
was  a  defaulter  to  the  parish  rates.  Her  death 
occurred  in  1699.  We  are  tempted  to  refer  to  a 
very  different  inhabitant  of  Kensington  Square — 
Thomas  Herring,  successively  Bishop  of  Bangor, 
and  Archbishop  of  York  and  Canterbury,  who 
occupied  a  house,  now  destroyed,  at  the  east  end 
next  to  the  south  side.  He  was  a  bachelor,  but 
his  cousin  Harriet,  co-heiress,  married  Sir  Francis 
Baring,  ancestor  of  the  various  members  of  that 
distinguished  family.  The  Earls  of  Cromer  and 
Northbrook  quarter  the  Herring  arms.  Her  sister 
married  a  Stone,  from  whom  the  writer  is  descended. 
Talleyrand  was  said  by  the  late  Dr.  Merriman  to 
have  lived  in  this  house.  In  1793  he  dates  a 
letter  to  Lord  Grenville  from  Kensington  Square. 
Among    regrettable    losses   is   that   of    the   little 


Greyhound  Tavern,  also  on  the  east  side,  with 
sculptured  figures  of  greyhounds  above  the  porch, 
which  as  Thackeray  tells  us,  was  ''  over  against  my 
Lady  Castlewood's  house."  In  Young  Street,  hard 
by,  at  the  house  with  the  double  bow  windows, 
once  called  "  the  Cottage,"  Thackeray  himself  lived 
for  some  years,  and  there  he  wrote  Vanity  Fair. 

Next  to  Holland  House,  the  most  important 
residence  in  Kensington  was  formerly  Campden 
House,  named  after  Campden  in  Gloucestershire, 
from  which  Sir  Baptist  Hicks,  its  first  owner,  when 
raised  to  the  peerage,  took  his  title.  By  marriage 
with  his  daughter  it  passed  to  a  Noel,  from  whom 
the  Earl  of  Gainsborough  is  descended.  Here 
the  Princess,  afterwards  Queen  Anne,  with  her 
son,  the  young  Duke  of  Gloucester,  lived  for  a 
time,  the  place  being  selected  on  account  of  its 
healthy  situation.  In  1862  the  old  house  was 
almost  completely  destroyed  by  fire,  about  the 
origin  of  which  there  was  so  much  suspicion  that 
a  lawsuit  followed  on  the  question  of  insurance 
money.  Afterwards  the  house  was  rebuilt  more 
or  less  in  the  old  style,  and  came  into  the  hands 
of  Mr.  Alexander  Elder,  a  gentleman  connected 
with  Australian  trade,  after  whose  death  in  1885 
his    family  continued   to  reside  there.      The   site 


of  the  house  and  the  large  and  beautiful  grounds 
are  now  covered  by  flats  and  chambers.  An 
adjoining  residence,  known  as  Little  Campden 
House,  Gloucester  Walk,  is  said  to  have  been 
built  for  the  reception  of  the  Princess  Anne's  suite 
when  she  was  at  the  larger  mansions.  It  is  now 
occupied  by  Mr.  Arthur  Cope,  A.R.A.,  of  the 
family  of  Sir  Walter  Cope,  from  whom  Sir  Baptist 
Hicks  originally  obtained  this  land — in  payment  of 
a  gambling  debt,  if  tradition  may  be  believed. 
Another  old  dwelling,  known  as  Bullingham  House, 
which  stood  a  short  distance  to  the  south-east,  near 
Church  Street,  and  is  described  in  Loftie's  Ken- 
migton,  was  destroyed  in  1895.  It  is  chiefly 
famous  from  the  fact  that  Sir  Isaac  Newton  died 
there,  after  a  short  residence.  The  entrance  was 
in  Pitt  Street,  with  a  back  entrance  close  to  the 
old  George  Tavern  in  Church  Street.  Of  late  the 
site  has  been  covered  by  Bullingham  Mansions. 

Our  account  of  Kensington  appears  to  be  little 
else  than  an  obituary  notice  of  delightful  old 
houses  standing  in  what  auctioneers  would  call 
"  their  own  grounds  "  which  of  late  years  have  died 
a  violent  death  at  the  hands  of  the  speculative 
builder.  The  process  is  still  going  on  and  will 
perhaps  continue  until  every  available  foot  of  space 


is  covered  with  bricks  and  mortar.  We  will  con- 
clude our  melancholy  list  with  York  House  and 
Maitland  House  on  the  east  side  of  Church  Street, 
their  grounds  extending  from  the  site  of  the 
old  vicarage  to  the  passage  which  leads  to 
Palace  Green.  They  were  in  appearance  pleasant 
Georgian  buildings,  standing  back  a  short  distance 
from  the  roadway,  with  fine  trees  in  front  and 
gardens  in  the  rear.  York  House,  the  more 
northern  of  the  two,  was  for  some  years  the 
residence  of  the  Princess  Sophia,  a  daughter  of 
George  III.,  and  here,  in  the  presence  of  the 
Duchess  of  Kent,  the  Duchess  of  Cambridge,  the 
Duchess  of  Gloucester,  and  the  Duchess  of  Inver- 
ness, she  breathed  her  last  on  May  27,  1848.  For 
a  few  years,  from  1884  onwards,  it  was  occupied 
by  Mr.  Richard  Potter,  father  of  Mrs.  Leonard 
Courtney ;  the  last  resident  there  was  Mrs.  John 
Jones,  after  whose  death  the  house  remained  un- 
tenanted. The  most  famous  occupant  of  Maitland 
House  was  Sir  David  Wilkie.  James  Mill,  father 
of  John  Stuart  Mill,  had  previously  lived  there, 
he  first  occupied  it  in  the  year  1830. 

To  complete  our  volume  we  will  say  a  few 
words  about  three  or  four  isolated  buildings,  here 
portrayed.     One  of  these,  a  humble  public-house 


called  the  Red  Cow,  was  in  the  Hammersmith 
Road,  just  beyond  St.  Paul's  School  on  the  same 
side.  Albeit,  very  picturesque  and  of  considerable 
age,  it  had,  as  far  as  the  writer  is  aware,  no  story 
worth  the  telling.  He  has  sometimes  amused 
himself  with  the  idea  that  Addison,  when  living 
at  Holland  House,  after  his  apparently  rather  un- 
congenial marriage  to  the  Countess  of  Warwick 
and  Holland  may  have  dropped  in  there  occasion- 
ally ;  but  his  regular  house  of  call  appears  to  have 
been  the  White  Horse  Inn  at  the  bottom  of 
Holland  Lane.  The  Red  Cow,  once  dear  to  the 
heart  of  Charles  Keene  the  artist,  disappeared  in 
the  autumn  of  1897.  The  brick  house  next  to 
it,  still  standing  and  formerly  called  Fairlawn,  was, 
from  1786  to  1793,  occupied  as  a  school  by  Dr. 
Charles  Burnev,  son  of  the  famous  musician  and 
author,  and  brother  of  Fanny  Burney,  afterwards 
Madame  D'Arblay.  It  is  now  John  Barker's 
auction  mart. 

In  Queen  Street,  Hammersmith,  on  the  east 
side  of  the  church,  stands  a  remarkable  building 
called  Bradmore  House,  now  divided  into  two. 
Quite  independent  of  this  modern  partition,  which 
converts  it  into  a  north  and  south  residence,  there 
is  a  structural  division,  the  part  facing  west,  which 


stands  back  a  short  distance  from  the  roadway, 
being  much  older,  though  less  interesting,  than  the 
eastern  portion,  which,  with  its  balustrade  and 
handsome  pilasters,  has  no  small  architectural  merit, 
reminding  one  somewhat  of  the  work  of  Wren. 
It  faces  a  garden,  and  is  still  intact,  although  the 
whole  site  of  1^  acres  has  been,  and  perhaps  still 
is,  to  let  on  building  lease. 

This  structure  stands  on  what  formed  part  of 
the  Butterwick  estate,  which  once  belonged  to 
Edmund  Sheffield,  Earl  of  Mulgrave,  and  took  its 
name  from  a  village  in  Lincolnshire  with  which 
his  family  was  connected.  Faulkner  tells  us  that 
his  residence  here  was  pulled  down  in  1836.  The 
accounts  of  the  property  by  Lysons  and  Faulkner 
are  somewhat  difficult  to  follow,  there  being 
apparently  some  confusion  between  this  and  the 
house  destroyed  in  1836.  It  seems,  however,  clear 
that  what  we  call  Bradmore  House,  which  may 
have  been  the  same  as  the  Manor  House  or  Farm 
of  Butterwick,  or  "  Great  House  "  of  old  deeds,  in 
1700  came  into  the  hands  of  Henry  Feme,  receiver- 
general  of  the  customs,  who  added  the  more 
modern  part  which  forms  the  subject  of  our  illustra- 
tion, intending  it,  according  to  Lysons,  "for  the 
residence  of  Mrs.  Oldfield,  the  celebrated  actress, 


to  whom  he  was  at  that  time  much  attached."  It 
was  afterwards  bought  by  the  father  of  Sir  EUjah 
Impey,  who  was  probably  born  here.  Whilst 
owned  by  the  Impeys  it  got  the  name  of  Bradmore 
House.  It  was  sold  by  the  representatives  of  that 
family  in  1821,  and  divided  into  two  residences  not 
many  years  afterwards. 

We  will  conclude  our  travels  by  visiting  the 
once  rural  village  of  Paddington,  where  Mrs. 
Siddons  had  her  country  home,  and  there  we 
will  say  a  few  words  about  an  old  thatched 
cottage  with  which  she  was  probably  familiar, 
for  in  her  day  houses  hereabouts  were  few  and 
far  between.  It  stood  on  the  west  side  of 
the  former  burial-ground  of  St.  Mary's  Church 
(now  a  public  garden),  and  behind  No.  12  St. 
Mary's  Terrace,  Paddington  Green,  and  in  1895 
was  occupied  by  Welsh-speaking  people  connected 
with  a  temporary  Welsh  chapel  hard  by,  who, 
strange  to  say,  could  hardly  utter  a  word  of 
English.  The  walls  of  this  cottage  were  com- 
posed of  pebbles  and  broken  flint  plastered  over, 
it  was  shaded  by  pleasant  trees  and  had  some 
vacant  space  around  it.  The  date  of  its  erection 
is  not  known.  In  the  Bayswater  Annual  for  1885 
there  was  a  statement   that   in    1820  the  cottage 

'*x^y£:i::eM-:^'K::W'^mimfii^? ;; . 


belonged  to  a  Mr.  Chambers,  "  a  banker  of  Bond 
Street."  The  occupants  then  commanded  an 
uninterrupted  view  of  the  Harrow  Road  as  it 
turned  northward.  Claremont  House,  within  a 
short  distance  of  Chambers's  Cottage,  was  re- 
markable for  the  "  Claremont  Caverns "  about 
which  many  strange  tales  were  told.  They  were 
the  work  of  Mr.  Southgate  Stevens,  who  here 
carried  on,  in  secret,  processes  for  extracting  or 
attempting  to  extract  gold  from  quartz  and  other 
minerals.  He  was  said  to  have  spent  some  £30,000 
in  this  fruitless  quest.  An  illustration  and  a  short 
account  of  Chambers's  Cottage  will  be  found  in 
the  Builder  for  May  18  and  June  8,  1895;  it 
was  demolished  a  year  or  two  afterwards,  to 
make  room  for  St.  David's  Welsh  Church,  and 
was  then  generally  thought  to  be  the  last  build- 
ing of  the  kind  in  London.  At  the  time  of 
writing,  however,  there  is  still,  I  believe,  a 
thatched  cottage  in  the  now  metropolitan  borough 
of  Camberwell. 


Adam  Brothers,  254,  256 

Addison,  Joseph,  269,  270,  282 

Adelphi,  254 

Albemarle,  Duchess  of,  252 

Aldgate  High  Street,  78,  79 

All  Hallows,  Upper  Thames  Street, 

Church  of,  127-129 
Ancaster,  fourth  Duke  of,  238 
Ancaster  family  {see  Lindsey,  Earl 

oO,  169 
Anchor  Brewery,  South  war  k,  40 
Angel  Inn  at  back  of  St.  Clement's, 

Anne,  Princess,  afterwards  Queen, 

at  Campden  House,  279 
Her  Suite  at   Little  Campden 

House,  280 
St.  Anne,  Blackfriars,  Church  of, 

Arch  Row,  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields, 

Art  Workers'  Guild,  215,  227 
Austin  Friars,  No.  10,  88,  89 
Church  of,  88,  No.  21,  89-92 
Remains  of  Cloister,  89 

Bankside,  Southwark,  33,  35-43 

Barnard's  Inn,  originally  Mack- 
worth's  Inn,  212-215 

Bartholomew  Fair,  152 

St.  Bartholomew  the  Great,  West 
Smithfield,  Church  of,  151 

St.  Bartholomew  the  Less,  Church 
of,  153 

St.  Bartholomew,  Priory  of,  150, 

Bath  Hotel,  Piccadilly,  166 
Beaumont,  Fletcher,  and  Massin- 

ger  in  Southwark,  45,  46 
Becket,  Thomas  a,  2 
Bedford   Hotel,   Covent  Garden, 

Bell  Inn,  Holhorn,  15^-161 
Bell  Inn,  Southwark,  4 
Bell  Inn,  Warwick  Lane,  110 
Bell  and  Crown  Inn,  Holhorn,  163 
Bertie  {see  Lindsey  and  Ancaster) 
Bishopsgate  Street  Without,  old 

houses  in,  51-54 
Black  Bull  Inn,  Aldgate,  78,  79 
Black  Bull  Inn,  Holborn,  161-162 
Black  Friars  or  Friars-Preachers 

of   the    Dominican   order   in 

London,  116-118 
Black  Jack  Tavern,   Portsmouth 

Street,  242,  243 
Black,  William,  157,  255 
Blake,  AVilliam,  254 
Blessington,  Countess  of,  274 
Blue    Coat    School    {see   Christ's 

Bohemia,    Elizabeth,    Queen    of, 

Boleyn  family,  65 
Botolph  Lane,  old  house  in,  85-87 
Bradmore  House,  Hammersmith, 

282,  284 
"  Brompton  Boilers,"  274 



Bromptou,  Old,  275 
Brunei  family,  170 
Buckingham,  Dukes  of,  98,  254 
Buckingham  Street,  Strand,  254, 

Bull  and  Bear  baiting.  South  wark, 

35,  37,  41 
BuUingham   House,   Kensington, 

Burney,  Fanny,  240,  282 

Dr.  Charles,  282 
Butler,  Samuel,  231 
Butterwick  estate.  Hammersmith, 


Cade,  Jack,  6,  10,  11 

Campden  House,  Kensington,  279, 

Chambers,  Sir  William,  27,  239 
Charing  Cross,  256,  257 
Chaucer,  Geoffrey,  and  the  Tabard 

Inn,  4,  6,  7 
Cheapside,     No.     73     (the     Old 

Mansion  House),  95,  96 
Cheere,  Sir  Henry,  218 
Child  and  Co.,  171 
Choate,  Mr.  J.  H.  (late  American 

ambassador),  260 
Christ's  Hospital,  Newgate  Street, 

on  site  of  Grey  Friars'  Con- 
vent, 143-148,  156 
Cider    Cellars    Tavern,     Maiden 

Lane,  253 
Clement's  Inn,  180,  215-219 
St.    Clement   Danes,   Church   of, 

243,  244 
Clifford's  Inn,  220-231 
Clink  Liberty,  Southwark,  27,  36, 

Clink  Prison,  Southwark,  27 
Cloth  Fair,  West  Smithfield,  151, 

Coal     Hole     Tavern,     Fountain 

Court,  253 
Cock  Tavern,  Fleet  Street,  173-176 
Cock  and  Pie  Public-house,  246 
Cogers,  Society  of,  172 

Cold  Harbour,  134 
Cole,  Sir  Henry,  274 
Coleherne  Court,  272 
Coleman  Street,  No.  4,  93-95 
College  Hill,  old  houses  on,  98, 

Coutts  and  Co.,  256 
Craven,  first  Earl  of,  245 
Cremorne  Gardens,  264,  265,  267 
Cricketers,   Australian  aboriginal 

in  Southwark,  21,  22 
Cromer,  Earl  of,  278 
Cromwell,  Oliver,  58,  93, 164, 177 
Cromwell  House  {see  Hale  House, 

Crosby,  Sir  John,  60 
Crosby  Hall  Chambers,  64 
Crosby  Place,  59-64 
Crosby  Square,  63,  64 
Curzon  family,  277 

Dacre's  Almshouses  {see  Emanuel 

Danes  Inn  {see  Angel  Inn) 
Deanery  of  St.  Paul's,  104 
Dean's  Court,  St.  Paul's  Church- 
yard, 103,  104 
De   Foe,  Daniel,   on  the   King's 
Bench  Prison,  30 
Mention    of  the    Three    Nuns 
Inn,  78 
Devil  Tavern,  Fleet  Street,  171 
Devonshire,  Duke  of,  225 
Dickens,  Charles,  and  the  White 
Hart  Inn,  Southwark,  12-15 
and    the    George    Inn,    South- 
wark, 18 
and  the  Marshalsea  Prison,  28 
and  the  King's  Bench  Prison,  81 
and  Horsemonger  Lane  Gaol,  32 
and  the  Black  Bull  Inn,  Aid- 
gate,  78 
and  the  Black  Bull  Inn,  Hol- 

born,  161,  162 
Residence  in  Furnival's  Inn,  207 
Mention  of  Staple  Inn,  Holborn, 



DickenSj  Charles — 

and  Barnard's  Inn^  Holborn,215 
and  No.  58  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields^ 

and  the  "  Old  Curiosity  Shop/' 

Reference  to  Magpie  and  Stump 
Tavern   "  in   the   vicinity   of 
Clare  Market/'  243 
and  Buckingham  Street,  Strand, 
Dick's  Coffee-house,  Fleet  Street, 

Dore,  Gustave,  his  death,  160 
Downing,  Sir  George,  260 
Downing  Street,  No.    10,  official 
residence  of  the  first  Lord  of 
the  Treasury,  258-260 
Drury  Court,  once  Maypole  Alley, 

Drury  Lane,  244,  246,  247 
Dry  den,  John,  170,  171 
Durham  House,  Strand,  252 
Dyer,  George,  231 

Ely  House,  Holborn,  154 
Emanuel  Hospital,  Westminster, 

Essex  Street,  Strand,  Essex  Head 

Tavern  in,  249 
Etty,  R.A.,  William,  255 
Evans's    Supper    Rooms,    Covent 

Garden,  253 

Fairlawn,  Hammersmith  Road,  282 

Farrer,  Sir  William,  237 

Fastolf,  Sir  John,  10 

Feret,  C.  J.,  267-269 

Field  Court  {see  Gray's  Inn  Square) 

Fitzstephen  on  London  Churches, 

Forster,  John,  239 
Fountain  Court,  Strand,  253,  254 
Fountain  Tavern,   Inner  Temple 

Gate-house,  193, 194, 197,198 
Franklin,  Benjamin,  240 
Furnival's  Inn,  207 

Garden  House,  Clements  Inn,  217 
Garrick,  David,  254 
George  Inn,  Southwark,  3,  15-18 
George     the      Fourth      Tavern, 

Gilbert's  Passage,  242,  243 
St.  George,  Botolph  Lane,  Church 

of,  129,  130 
St.  Giles,  Cripplegate,  Church  of, 

Globe  Theatre,  Bankside,  South- 
wark, 38,  40 
Gloucester  House,  Piccadilly,  257, 

Goldsmith,  Oliver,  177,  178 
Goose  and  Gridiron  Inn,  London 

House  Yard,  107,  108 
Gore  House,  Kensington,  274 
Gray's  Inn,  205 
Gray's   Inn   Square,   No.    15,    as 

seen  from  Field  Court,  205 
Great  Exhibition  of  1851,  273,  274 
Great  St.  Helen's,  No.  10,  65,  m 
Nos.  8  and  9,  QQ 
Entrance  to  Great  St.  Helen's,  72 
Judd's  Almhouses  there,  72 
Great  Winchester  St.,  No.  23,  92 
Green  Dragon  Inn,  St.  Andrew's 

Hill,  106 
Green  ^^ Paddy"  253 
Gresham  Family,  126,  127 
Grey  Friars  in  London,  143-148 
Guy,    Thomas,    Founder  of   the 

Hospital,  23 
Gwyn,   Eleanor,   234,    235,   246, 

247,  252,  268,  269 

Hale  House,  Kensington,  274 
Half  Moon  Inn,  Southwark,  31 
Hanseatic  Merchants,  128 
Hare  Court,  Temple,  202,  203 
Harrington    estate,    Kensington, 

Harrington  House,  Craig's  Court, 

Harvard,  John,  20, 
Harvard  College,  United  States  of 

America,  20,  260 



Hawthorne,  Nathaniel,  211 
Hazlitt,  W.  C,  275 
Heathcock  Court,  Strand,  252 
St.  Helen,  Bishopsgate  St. ,  Church 

of,  65,  Q6 
Herring,  Archbishop,  278 
Hoefnagel,  Joris,  Picture  by,  45 
Holt,  Chief  Justice,  214 
Holy  Trinity  Minories,  Church  of, 

Holywell  Street,  Strand,  243,  244 
Hook,  Theodore,  242 
Hooper,  Bishop,  244 
Hopton  s  Almhouses,  Southwark, 

Horse     and     Groom     Alehouse, 

Leather  Lane^  163 
Horsemonger  Lane  Goal,  South- 
wark, 32 
Hunsden,  Henry  Carey,  Lord,  in 

Southwark,  34,  38 
Hunter,  Dr.  John,  his   house  at 

Earl's  Court,  272 
Hyde  Abbey,  5 

Impey,  Sir  Elijah,  284 

Inner  Temple  Gate-house,  No.  17 

Fleet  Street,  180-198 
Ireland  Yard,  Blackfriars,  Gothic 
remains  in,  115-118 
Shakespeare's  house  in,  106, 118 

Jacobsen,  Theodore,  129 
Johnson,     Dr.     Samuel     at    the 

Anchor  Brewery,  40 
At  the  Mitre  Tavern,  171 
With  Goldsmith  in  Westminster 

Abbey  and  by  Temple  Bar, 

177,  178 
At  Staple  Inn  and  Gough  Square, 

His  Club  in  Essex  Street,  249 
At  Charing  Cross,  256 
Jones,  Inigo,   and  the  Porch  of 

St.  Helen's  Church,  65 
And  Nos.   8  and   9   Great  St. 

Helen's,  67 

Jones,  Inigo — 

and  the  Inner  Temple  Gate- 
house, 192 
His    work     in     Lincoln's     Inn 

Fields,  233 
And  Portsmouth  House,  234 
And  Lindsey  House,  238 
And  Covent  Garden,  253 
And  York  Watergate,  256 
Judd's     Almhouses,     Great     St. 
Helen's,  72,  73 

Kean,  Edmund,  253 
Kelly,  Sir  Fitzroy,  209 
Kemble,  John,  242 
Kensington  Canal,  267,  268 
Kensington  Palace,  273 
Kensington  Square,  278,  279 
Kensington  Wells,  273 
King's  Bench  Prison,  Southwark, 

King's  Head  Inn,  Southwark,  3, 


Lamb,  Charles  ("Elia"),  203 

Lambert,  General  John,  272 

La  Trobe  family,  169 

Laurence  Poultney  Hill,  old  door- 
ways on,  96,  97 
Old   Crypt  there,   part  of  Sir 
John  de  Poultney's  mansion, 

Lawrence,  Sir  John,  68-71 

Lay  ton's     Yard     or     Buildings, 
Southwark,  31,  32 

Leather  Lane,  154,  162,  163 

Lefevre  family,  90 

Lemon,  Mark,  243,  244 

Lethaby,  W.  R.,  218 

Lethieullier  family,  99,  100 

Lime  Street,  old  mansion  in,  87, 88 

Lincoln's  Inn,  204 

Lincoln's  Inn  Fields,  233-240 

Lindsey,  Robert  Bertie,  Earl  of, 

Lindsey  House,  Chelsea,  169, 170, 



Lindsey     House,     Lincoln's    Inn 

P^ields,  238,  288,  289,  264 
London,  Roman  wall  of,  112-115 
London  Bridge,  Old,  47 
Lowther  Arcade,  256 
Lyon's  Inn,  207 

Macaulay,  Lord,  263,  264 
Maitland  House,  Kensington,  281 
Mark  Lane,  old  house  in,  88,  84 
Marks,  Alfred,  110,  289 
Marshalsea     Prison,     Southwark, 

St.   Mary  le  Strand,  Church  of, 

Maunders    Fish    Shop,    Cheyne 

Walk,  264,  265 
Mazarin,  Duchess  of,  278 
Merchant  Taylors'  Company,  140- 

St.  Michael,  Bassishaw,  Church  of, 

126,  127 
St.  Michael,  Wood  Street,  Church 

of,  121-126 
St.  Mildred,  Bread  Street,  Church 

of,  128 
Mill,  John  Stuart,  281 
Miller,  Joe,  242 

Milton,  John,  burial  place  of,  58 
Minet  family,  90 
"  The  Mint,"  Southwark,  29 
Mitre  Tavern,  Fleet  Street,  171, 

Moravian  Community  in  Nevill's 

Court  and  at  Lindsey  House, 

Chelsea,  168-170 
Morris,  William,  215 
Mulgrave,  Edmund  Sheffield,  Earl 

of,  283 

Nando'sCoiFee-house,  Fleet  Street, 

Nevill's  Court,  Fetter  Lane,  Nos. 

10,  13,  14,  and  15,  167-170 
Newcastle,  Dukes  of,  287 
Newcastle   House,  Lincoln's   Inn 

Fields,  236-238 

Newgate  Prison,  112,  113 

Roman  remains  there,  112-117 
New  Inn,  219,  220 
Newton,  Sir  Isaac,  280 
Northbrook,  Earl  of,  278 
Northumberland    House,   Strand, 

"Old  Curiosity  Shop,"  Ports- 
mouth Street,  240-242 

Olmius  family,  89,  90 

Oxford  Arms  Inn,  Warwick  Lane, 

Paddington  Green,  thatched 
cottage  near,  284,  285 

Paris  Garden,  Manor  of,  South- 
wark, 38-35 

Paul,  Roland,  217 

St.  Paul's  Deanery,  104 

St.  Paul's  pier  and  wharf,  101-103 
Old  house  there,  101 

People's  Palace,  Mile  End,  76 

Pepys,  Samuel,  in  Southwark,  37 
His  residence  in  Seething  Lane, 

At    the    Cock    Tavern,    Fleet 

Street,  173 
In  Buckingham  Street,  Strand, 

Peter  the  Great,  255 

Pindar,  Sir  Paul,  and  his  house, 

Pope's  Head  {see  King's  Head 
Inn,  Southwark) 

Portsmouth,  Earls  of,  235,  236 

Portsmouth,  Louise  de  Keroualle, 
Duchess  of,  234,  285 

Portsmouth  House,  Lincoln's  Inn 
Fields,  234-286 

Portsmouth  Street,  285,  240,  241 

Potter,  Richard,  281 

Powys,  Marquis  of,  287 

Pulteney,  Sir  John  de,  133,  134 

Queen's  Head  Inn,  Southwark, 
3,  18-23 


Quest  House,  St.  Giles,  Cripple- 
gate,  55,  56 

Rahere,  founder  of  St.  Bartholo- 
mew's Priory  and  Hospital, 
150,  152 

Rainbow  Tavern,  Fleet  Street, 
172,  200,  202 

Red  Cow  Public  House,  Hammer- 
smith Road,  283 

Reuss,  Henry,  Count,  169 

Rich,  first  Lord,  151 

Roman  remains  in  London,  1,  2, 
23,  47,  48,  111-114,  148,  250, 

Rose  Theatre,  Southwark,  38 
Rose  Alley,  40 

Sandford  Manor  House,  268-271 
Sand's  End  or  Sandy  End,  268, 

Saracen's  Head  Inn,  Aldgate,  82 
Sardinia    Street,    formerly   Duke 

Street,  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields, 

233,  240 
St.  Anne,  Blackfriars,  Church  of, 

St.  Bartholomew,  Priory  of,  150, 

St.  Bartholomew  the  Great,  West 

Smithfield,  Church  of,  151 
St.  Bartholomew  the  Less,  Church 

of,  153 
St.    Clement  Danes,  Church   of, 

243,  244 
St.  George,  Botolph  Lane,  Church 

of,  129,  130 
St.  Giles,  Cripplegate,  Church  of, 

St.  Helen,  Bishopsgate  St. ,  Church 

of,  65,  66 
St.   Mary  le  Strand,  Church  of, 

St.  Michael,  Bassishaw,  Church  of, 

126, 127 
St.  Michael,  Wood  St. ,  Church  of, 


St.  Mildred,  Bread  Street,  Church 

of,  128 
St.  Paul's  Deanery,  104 
St.  Paul's  Pier  and  V^liarf,  101-103 

Old  house  there,  101 
St.       Saviour's      Church      (now 
Cathedral),  Southwark,  45, 46 
Savoy  Chapel,  248 
Scarsdale     House,     Kensington, 

276,  277 
Schomberg  House,  Piccadilly,  257 
Scroope's  Inn,  208 
Seething     Lane,      Residence     of 

Samuel  Pepys  in,  85 
Serjeant's  Inn,  207,  208 
Shakespeare,  Edmond  or  Edmund, 

Shakespeare  William,  His  refer- 
ence to  the  White  Hart  Inn, 
His  residence  in  Southwark,  38 
Connection  with  Globe  Theatre, 

Connection  with  Rose  Theatre, 

Falcon  Tavern,  41 
Reference  to  Crosby  Place,  61 
His  probable  residence   in   St. 

Helen's  Parish,  61 
Connection  with  the  Blackfriars 

Theatre,  106 
His  house  in  Ireland  Yard,  106, 

His  reference  to  "  the  Rose," 
St.  Laurence  Poultney,  13i3, 
Quotation  from  his  play  of  King 

Henry  IV.  Part  IL,  180 
Reference    to    Clement's    Inn, 
Sheppard,  Jack,  242,  245 
Shorter,  Sir  John,  152 
Siddons,  Mrs.,  283 
Sieve     Tavern,    Church     Street, 

Minories,  80,  81 
Simpson's  Tavern,  Strand,  254 
Six  Bells  Tavern,  Chelsea,  264 



Skinners'  Company's  Almshouses^ 

Mile  End,  73,  74 
Scmers,  first  Lord,  237 
Somerset  House,  Strand,  248 
Sophia,  Princess,  281 
Southwark,  1-46 
Spedding-,  James,  239 
Spencer,  Sir  John,  61,  62 
Stamford  Bridge,  267 
Stanfield,  R.  A. ,  William  Clarkson, 

Staple  Inn,  209-212 
Steelyard,  128 
Stews,  Bankside,  Southwark,  37, 

Stone,  Nicholas,  256 
Stow,  John,  Reference  to  South- 
wark, from  his  ^'  Survey,"  1 
His  list  of  Southwark  Inns,  3 
On  the  Tabard,  5 
On  Goodman's  Fields,  80 
On  Paul's  Wharf,  102 
On  the  Inns  of  Chancery,  205, 

Strand,  various  old  houses  in  the, 

Strand  Lane,  Roman  Bath,  250, 

Suffolk,  Charles  Brandon,  Duke 

of,  his  mansion  in  Southwark, 

Has  a  grant  of  Pulteney's  Inn 

or  the  '"^  Manor  of  the  Rose," 

139,  140 
Suffolk  Lane,  No.  2,  97,  98 
Suffolk  Lane,  Old  house  in,  97, 

Sundial,  Clement's  Inn,  217 
Swan  Theatre,  Southwark,  39 
Swan  with  Two  Necks  Inn,  Carter 

Lane,  104,  105 

Tabard  Inn,  Southwark,  3-9 
Talleyrand  -  Perigord,        Charles 

Maurice  de,  278 
Taylor,  John  (Water-poet),  8,  11, 

12,  36,  44,  156 

Temple  Bar,  176-179,  201 
Temple,  Inner,  204 
Temple,  Middle,  204 
Tennyson,  Alfred,  239,  240 
Terrace,  The,  Kensington,  277 
Thackeray,  W.  M, ,  possible  refer- 
ence to  Clement's  Inn,  216 
His  reference  to  the  ''^Cave  of 

Harmony,"  253 
To  Kensington  Square,  279 
His  residence  in  Young  Street, 
Thackeray,  Miss  (Mrs.  Richmond 
Ritchie),    her    reference    to 
Scarsdale  House,  277 
Thatched  cottage  near  Paddington 

Green,  284,  285 
Thatched  House  Court,  252 
Thavies  Inn,  206 
Thrale,  Mr.  and  Mrs. ,  40,  249 
Trinity  Hospital,  Mile  End,  74 
Turner,   J.    W.    M.,   cottage    in 
Chelsea,  where  he  died,  266 

Victoria,  H.M.  Queen,  75,  177 
Vine  Tavern,  Mile  End,  75-77 

Walpole,  Sir  Robert,  254,  258 
Walter,  Sir  Edward,  K.C.B.,  252 
Ward,  first  Lord,  25 
Warde,  Sir  Patience,  141,  142 
Waverley,  Abbot  of,  5,  24 
Waxworks,  Mrs.  Salmon's,  after- 
wards Mrs.  Clark's,  195-198 
Wheatley      and       Cunningham's 

London  Past  and  Present,  164, 

Whistler,  J.   A.    M.,  at  Lindsey 

House,  Chelsea,  170 
In  Cheyne  Walk,  265 
Whitechapel,  77,  78 
White  Hart  Inn,  Southwark,  3, 

White  Hart  Yard,  Brooke  Street, 

Holborn,  164 , 
White    Horse    Cellars,   Old    and 

New,  Piccadilly,  167 


White  Horse  Inn,   Fetter  Lane, 

White  Horse  Irni,  Holland  Lane, 

White  Lion  Prison,  Southwark,  28 

Whittington,  Richard,  98 

Wilkie,  Sir  David,  281 

Will  Waterproofs  Lyrical  Mono- 
logue, 174 

Wren,  Sir  Christopher,  in  South- 
wark,  41,  42 
Reputed  connection  with  house 

in  Botolph  Lane,  87 
Architect   of   the    Deanery   of 
St.  Paul's,  104 

Wren,  Sir  Christopher — 

At    the    Goose    and    Gridiron 

Tavern,  108 
Architect  of  City  Churches,  119- 
121,  126,  127,  129 
Wych  Street,  244,  245 

York  House,  Kensington,  281 
York  Watergate,  255 
Young  Street,  Thackeray's  house 
in,  279 

Zinzendorf,  Count,  168,  169 


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"  None  but  a  highly-gifted  artist  who  was  also  a 
profoundly  sympathetic  student  of  the  contributing 
factors  of  London's  wonderful  appeal  to  the  eye  and 
imagination  could  have  caught  so  much  of  its  potent 
and  infinitely  diversified  charm,  or  conveyed  its  colour 
and  atmosphere  and  the  many  and  various  conditions 
with  such  almost  invariable  fidelity  as  Mr.  Marshall 
has  done  in  these  delicate  and  delightful  sketches ; 
while  Miss  Mitton  has  here  given  fresh  and  most 
acceptable  proof  of  that  'extensive  and  peculiar' 
knowledge  of  London  which  rendered  her  so  valued  a 
coadjutor  of  the  late  Sir  Walter  'Besa.nt."—TAe  World. 


W.    L.    WYLLIE,  A.R.A. 



"  Now,  at  last,  comes  a  volume  which  gives  us  the 
whole  soul  and  figure,  so  to  speak,  of  the  great  fleet- 
bearing,  commercial,  and  warlike  stream  which  con- 
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London," — Daily  Graphic. 

"  This  charming  work  is  in  every  way  welcome,  and 
every  Londoner  who  reads  it  will  prize  it.  The  repro- 
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"  Miss  Barton  yields  to  no  artist  as  the  pictorial 

chronicler  of  London.     She  gives  us  the  London   we 

know  and    love,   the    London   which   is  part    of   the 

workaday  lives  we  spend  in  the  market  of  the  Universe." 

Douglas  Sladen  in  The  Queen. 

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and  finer  execution." — Literary  World. 

Prospectuses  may  be  bad  on  application  to  the  Publisbers, 



Sir  Walter  Besant's  Magnum  Opus 

Demy  4to,  Cloth,  Gilt  Top,  profusely  illustrated  from 
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"  To  praise  this  book  were  superfluous.  Sir  Walter 
was  ideally  suited  for  the  task  which  he  set  him- 
self. He  was  an  antiquarian,  but  not  a  Dryasdust ; 
he  had  the  topographical  sense,  but  he  spares  us 
measurements  ;  he  was  pleasantly  discursive ;  if  he 
moralised  he  was  never  tedious  ;  he  had  the  novelist's 
eye  for  the  romantic.  Above  all,  he  loved  and 
reverenced  London.  Though  only  a  Londoner  by 
adoption,  he  bestowed  upon  the  capital  a  more 
than  filial  regard.  Besant  is  the  nineteeth -century 
Stow,  and  something  more.  .  .  .  This  remarkable 
volume.  ...  It  is  a  monument  of  faithful  and  careful 
research." — Daily  Telegraph. 


"  This  is  a  handsome  and  valuable  volume,  and  the 
several  chapters  give,  with  the  broad,  comprehensive 
touch  of  a  master-hand,  a  wonderfully  vivid  impression 
of  the  great  city  the  late  Sir  Walter  knew  so  well  in 
its  modern  a^spect.' — The  Spectator. 

"  Most  rteadable  and  interesting  ...  it  is  a  mine 
in  which  the  student  alike  of  topography  and  of 
manners  and  customs  may  dig  and  dig  again  with  the 
certainty  of  finding  sopiething  new  and  interesting." — 
The  Times. 


This  is  the  third  volume  in  the  series  of  Sir  Walter 
Besant's  great  Survey  of  London.  It  is  similar  in  style 
to  the  previous  volumes,  "London  in  the  Eighteenth 
Century  "  and  "  London  in  the  time  of  the  Stuarts,"  and, 
like  them,  is  profusely  illustrated  with  contemporary 
prints.  In  Tudor  London,  especially  in  the  person  of 
the  great  Queen  who  dominated  the  epoch.  Sir  Walter 
Besant  has  found  a  subject  after  his  own  heart. 
Elizabeth's  character,  her  weaknesses,  her  greatness, 
her  love  of  display,  and  her  hold  on  the  hearts  of  her 
subjects,  are  described  ably  and  vividly. — Publishers' 



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